Direct Seeding from the Ground
In addition to sowing by airplane or helicopter, tree seeds can be broadcast by hand, hand-operated "cyclone" seeders, or tractor-drawn machines. A few examples are shown below. These systems have been made practical for use by the seed coatings developed for aerial seeding use. (U.S. Forest Service photos).
Abbott, H. G., ed. 1965. Direct Seeding in the Northwest. Symposium. Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA. 127 pp.
Abbott, H. G. 1974. Direct seeding in the U.S. In Direct Seeding Symposium, J. H. Cayford, ed., Publication No. 1339, Canadian Forestry Service, Department of the Environment, Ottawa, Canada. pp 1-10.
Akesson, N. B., and Yates, W. E. 1974. The Use of Aircraft in Agriculture. FAO Agricultural Development Paper, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 217 pp.
Appelroth, S. E. 1978. Ilma-alusten kaytto metsan kylvossa. [Use of aircraft in direct seeding of forests.] Metsa ja Puu 1, Helsinki, Finland. pp 6-9. (Available from author, Department of Forest Technology, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Unionkatu 40 A, SF 00170 Helsinki 17, Finland.)
Appelroth, S. E. 1974. Work study aspects of planting and direct seeding in forestry. In Proceedings of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations Symposium on Stand Establishment, Wagertingen, Netherlands.
Cadiz, R. T., and Dalmacio, M. V. 1978. Direct seeding of cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linnaeus). Sylvetrop. Philippine Forest Research Journal 3:41-45.
Campbell, T. E. 1975. Yields of Direct-Seeded Loblolly Pine at 22 Years. U.S. Forest Service Research Note SO-199, Alexandria Forestry Center, U.S. Forest Service, Pineville, Louisiana, USA.
Campbell, T. E., and Mann, Jr., W. F. 1971. Site Preparation Boosts Growth of Direct-Seeded Slash Pine. U.S. Forest Service Research Note SO-116, Alexandria Forestry Center, U.S. Forest Service, Pineville, Louisiana, USA. 4 pp.
Cayford, J. H., ed. 1974. Direct Seeding Symposium. Publication No. 1339, Canadian Forestry Service, Department of the Environment, Ottawa, Canada. 178 pp.
Chapman, G. W., and Allan, T. G. 1978. Establishment Techniques for Forest Plantations. FAO Forestry Paper No. 8, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 190 pp.
Dalmacio, M. V. 1975. Coating ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) seeds with Arasan-75. Sylvatrop. Philippine Forest Research Joumal 1:148-149.
Derr, J. J., and Mann, Jr., W. F. 1971. Direct-Seeding Pines in the South. Agriculture Handbook No. 391, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., USA. 68 pp.
Foreman, F. F., and Riley, L. E. 1979. Jack Pine Seed Distribution Using the Brohm Seeder/Piper PA-18A Aircraft Combination. Report 0-X-294, Canadian Forestry Service, Great Lakes Forest Research Centre, Ontario, Canada. 43 pp.
Forest Research Institute, New Zealand. 1976. Legumes and protection forestry. What's New in forests Research No. 33. Forest Research Institute, Private Bag, Rotorua, New Zealand. 4 pp.
Forestry Department, Nigeria. 1962. Direct sowing of Azadirachta indica from the air. In Nigeria, Forest Administration of the North Region, Forestry Department Report 1959-1960, Nigeria
Porests Commission, Victoria. 1976. Aerial Seeding-Eucalypts. Operational Information No. 10, File 71/1513. Division of Forests Operations, Forests Commission, 300 Bourke Street, Melbourne 3000, Victoria, Australia. 11 pp.
Forests Commission, Victoria. 1977. Seed Coating-Eucalypts. Operational lnformation No. 9, File 71/1513. Division of Forests Operations, Forests Commission, 300 Bourke Street, Melbourne 3000, Victoria, Australia.
Grose, R. J., Moulds, F. R. and Douglas, M. G. 1964. Aerial seeding of alpine ash. Australian Forestry 28(3).
Hadipoernomo. 1979. Critical land rehabilitation with air seeding. Duta Rimba 5(31): 9-12. an English and Indonesian.)
Hodgson, A. and Heislers, A. 1972. Some aspects of the role of forest tree in South Eastern Australia. Bulletin 21, Forests Commission, Victoria, Australia.
Laurie, M. V. 1974. Tree Planting Practices in African Savanna. FAO Forestrv Development Paper No. 19, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
Ledgard, N. J. 1974. Direct seeding of woody plants above 1000 meters. Protection Forestry Report No. 131, New Zealand Forest Service, Forest Research Institute, Christchurch, New Zeeland. 60 pp.
McCracken, I. J. 1969. Direct seeding for watershed revegetation. Protection Forestry Report No. 62, New Zealand Forest Service, Forest Research Institute, Christchurch, New Zealand.
McKell, C. M., and Finnis, J. M. 1957. Control of soil moisture depletion through use of 2.4-D on mustard nurse crop during Douglas fir seedling establishment. Forest Science 3:329-335.
Mann, Jr., W. F. 1970. Direct-Seeding Longleaf Pine. Forest Service Research Paper S0-28, Southern Forest Experiment Station, U.S. Forest Service, Pineville, Louisiana, USA. 26 pp.
Mann, Jr., W. F., Campbell, T. E., and Chappell, T. W. 1974. Status of aerial row seeding. Forest Farmer 34: 12-13, 38-40.
Mann, Jr., W. F., and Derr, H. J. 1966. Guidelines for Direct-Seeding Loblolly Pine. Occasional Paper 188, Southern Forest Experiment Station, U.S. Forest Service Pineville, Louisiana, USA. 23 pp.
Myers, N. 1980. Conversion of Tropical Moist Forests. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., USA. 214 pp.
San Buenaventura, P., and Assiddao, F. 1955. Progress report on air seeding tests. Filipino Forester 7:61-64.
San Buenaventura, P., and Assiddao, F. 1957. Preliminary tests on aerial seeding of ipil-ipil (Leucaena glauca (L) Benth). Philippine Journal of Forestry 13(3-4): 119-132.
Sumarna, K., and Sudiono, Y. 1974a. Sampling results in the area of aerial seeding in the Forest District Lawu Ds., East Java. Forest Research Institute Report No. 180, Bogor, Indonesia. (Indonesian with English summary.)
Sumarna, K., and Sudiono, Y. 1974b. Sampling results in the area of aerial seeding in the Forest District Balapulang, Middle Java. Forest Research Institute Report No. 188, Bogor, Indonesia. (Indonesian with English summary.) 20 pp.
Vogel, W. G., and Berg, W. A. 1973. Fertilizer and herbaceous cover influence establishment of direct-seeded black locust on coal mine spoils. In Ecology and Reclamation of Devastated Land, R. Hutnik and G. Davis, eds., Gordon and Breach Science Publications, Inc., New York, New York, USA. pp 189-198.
Zarger, T. G., Curry, J. A., and Allen, J. C. 1973. Seeding of pine on coal spoil banks in the Tennessee valley. In Ecology and Reclamation of Devastated Land, R. Hutnik and G. Davis, eds., Gordon and Breach Science Publications, Inc., New York, New York, USA. Vol. 1, pp 509-523.
Herschel G. Abbott, Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA
S. E. Appelroth, Department of Forest Technology, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Unioninkatu 40A, SF-00170 Helsinki 17, Finland
Wayne Bell, International Forest Seed Co., P.O. Box 76008, Birmingham, Alabama 35223, USA
Thomas E. "Tucker" Campbell, Southern Forest Experiment Station, 2500 Shreveport Highway, Pineville, Louisiana 71360, USA
George Cullum, Chevelon Ranger District, Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest, 1502 West Third Street, Winslow, Arizona 86047, USA
M. V. Dalmacio, Science Research Supervisor, Forest Research Institute, College, Laguna, Philippines
L. D. Delaney, Jr., International Forest Seed Company, Woodworth, Louisiana 71485, USA
Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 66, Bogor, Indonesia (R. Soerjono, K. Sumarna, Y. Sudiono, and Hadipoernomo)
R. E. Graber, Forest Science Laboratory, P.O. Box 640, Durham, New Hampshire 03824, USA
L. J. Heidman, Forest Science Laboratory, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona 86001, USA
Earle P. Jones, Jr., Southeast Forest Experimental Station, P.O. Box 5016, Macon, Georgia 31208, USA
J. A. Lewald C., P.O. Box 543, Guatemala City, Guatemala
Cyrus McKell, Institute of Land Rehabilitation, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA
Franois Mergen, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, 370 Prospect St., New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA
S. R. Miller, Chesapeake Corp. of Virginia, P.O. Box 311, West Point, Virginia 23181, USA
Francis Moulds, 19 Talbot Crescent, Kooyong, 3144 Victoria, Australia
Harry Murphy, Resource Management Service, Inc., P.O. Box 43388, Birmingham, Alabama 35243, USA
Alan H. Nordmeyer, Forest and Range Experiment Station, New Zealand Forest Service, Box 31-011, Christchurch, New Zealand
L. F. Riley, Great Lakes Forestry Centre, Canadian Forestry Service, Box 490, Sault St. Marie, Ontario P6A 5M7, Canada
James Scott, Forest Resources Branch, Whitney Block, Ministry of Natural Resources, 99 Wellesley St. West, Toronto, Ontario M7A 1W3, Canada
James E. Smith, Assistant Chief Forester, U.S. Steel Corporation, Box 599, Fairfield, Alabama 35064, USA
A. J. Threader, Forests Commission Victoria, GPO Box 4018, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia
Contributors to the Study
In addition to the panelists and research contacts, the following have
contributed to the production of this report:
HARUN ALRASYID, Forest Research Institute, Bogor, Indonesia
H. E. BAXENDALE, United States Steel Corporation, Fairfield, Alabama, USA
W. HUGH BOLLINGER, Plant Resources Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
SYDNEY DRAPER, The World Bank, Washington, D.C., USA
HAROLD DREGNE, International Center for Arid and Semi-Arid Land Studies, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA
I. A. KRONBERG, United States Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
NELSON B. KVERNO, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. USA
RALPH W. LAW, Olinkraft Corporation, West Monroe, Louisiana, USA
J. R. PALMER, Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza, Turrialba, Costa Rica
WALTER PARHAM, Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress, Washington, D.C., USA
FILIBERTO S. POLLISCO, Forest Research Institute, Laguna, Philippines
CLAYTON POSEY, National Bulk Carriers, New York, New York, USA
GUNNAR POULSEN, International Development Research Centre, Nairobi, Kenya
JAMES F. REDHEAD, Division of Forestry, University of Dar es Salaam, Morogoro, Tanzania
H. SCHMIDT-VOGT, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat, Waldbau-Institut, Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany
THOMAS H. SCHUBERT, Institute of Tropical Forestry, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico, USA
ROGER SKOLMEN, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
JAMES E. SMITH, United States Steel Corporation, Birmingharn, Alabama, USA
CRAIG WHITESELL, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, U.S. Departrnent of Agriculture, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
J. LES WHITMORE, Institute of Tropical Forestry, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico, USA
K. F. WIERSUM, Department of Silviculture, Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Biographical Sketches of Panel Members
HERSCHEL G. ABBOTT, professor of forestry, Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, received a B.S. in forestry from the University of Maine in 1943, an M.F. in silviculture from Harvard University in 1952, and an M.S. from Harvard in 1959. He has conducted research in direct seeding and in forest-animal relationships dealing with tree-seed depredations by birds and small mammals. Teaching duties have included silviculture, forest protection, dendrology, and forest genetics. He is the recipient of the 1975 Award for Distinguished Service, New England Section, Society of American Foresters.
W. F. MANN, JR. (deceased) was chief silviculturist with the U.S. Forest Service, working for the Southern Forest Experiment Station at Alexandria, Louisiana. He received a B.S. in forest management from Pennsylvania State University in 1937 and an M.F. in silviculture at Louisiana State University in 1964. He headed a nine-man multidisciplinary team of scientists studying methods of artificial regeneration, vegetation control, growth and yield of southern pines, and site preparation and amelioration. He wrote more than 150 papers on a broad array of subjects, but was best known for his work on direct seeding and growth and yield of pines. He completed a 4-year study of native root parasites harmful to major conifer and hardwood species in the South. He received the 1972 Award for Outstanding Achievement in Biological Research offered by the Society of American Foresters. Mr. Mann died on January 21, 1980.
FRANOIS MERGEN, Pinchot Professor of Forestry, Yale University, was Dean of the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Yale during 1965-1975. He received a B.A. from Luxembourg College, a B.Sc.F. from the University of New Brunswick (Canada) in 1950, an M.F. in ecology from Yale in 1951, and a Ph.D. (forest genetics) in 1954 from Yale. He is especially knowledgeable about Francophone Africa and is currently chairman of the BOSTID Sahel program and a member of BOSTID'S Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation. He was research collaborator at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1960-65. In 1966, he received the Award for Outstanding Achievement in Biological Research by the Society of American Foresters. He was Distinguished Professor (Fulbright-Hays Program) in Yugoslavia, 1975. Prior to joining the Yale faculty, he served as project leader in forest genetics for the U.S. Forest Service in Florida. Dr. Mergen has also sened at various times as a consultant to FAO, foreign governments, and private
FRANCIS R. MOULDS, head of his own forestry consultancy service in Australia, received his M.F. in 1946 and Ph.D. in 1951 from Yale University. He was former Principal, Victorian School of Forestry, and lecturer in forest economics at the University of Melbourne, Australia. For several years he was chief of the Division of Forest Education and Research and of the Division of Forest Management with the Victoria Forests Commission. From 1969 until 1978 he was chairman of the Forests Commission of Victoria and a member of the Land Utilization Council and Standing Committee of the Australian Forestry Council. He has bean awarded the Queen's Jubilee Medal and the Imperial Service Order for Services to Forestry and to Government.
ALAN H. NORDMEYER, a research scientist with the Protection Forestry Division of the Forest Research Institute, New Zealand Forest Service, Christchurch, New Zealand, received a master's degree in agricultural sciences in the area of agricultural microbiology, Lincoln College, University of Canterbury, 1966. His present work concerns the use of plants for erosion control in New Zealand.
JAMES D. SCOTT, a silviculturist with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Canada, received his B.Sc.F. in 1948 from the University of New Brunswick. He signed as forest management supervisor in three districts of the Ministry (formerly Department of Lands and Forests) before being transferred to the head office of the Ministry, Toronto, in 1960. Since then, he has been engaged in several silvicultural fields including aerial seeding programs, planting machine development, and research on other silviculture equipment. More recently, he became silviculturist for that part of Ontario specializing in hardwoods and pine.
NOEL D. VIETMEYER, staff director for this study, is a Professional Associate of the National Academy of Sciences. Recipient of a PhD. in organic chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, he has been staff officer for a number of NAS studies that have drawn attention to unconventional aspects of science that could be helpful to developing counkies.