PRINCIPLES OF ART AND DESIGN
These principles are concepts used to organize or arrange
the structural elements of design. Again, the way in which
these principles are applied affects the expressive content,
or the message of the work.
The principles are:
Balance can be defined as harmony in the parts of a whole.
There are two types of balance: symmetrical and asymmetrical
Symmetrical balance can also be referred to as formal balance.
Asymmetrical balance is also called informal balance.
Proportion refers to the relative size and scale of the various
elements in a design. This means that it is necessary to discuss
proportion in terms of the context or standard used to determine
Rhythm can be described as timed movement through space, an
easy, connected path along which the eye follows a regular
arrangement of motifs.
Rhythm depends largely upon the elements of pattern and movement
to achieve its effects.
Rhythm can be created in a number of ways. Linear rhythm refers
to the characteristic flow of the individual line.
Emphasis is also referred to as point of focus, or interruption.
The artist or designer uses emphasis to call attention to
something, or to vary the composition in order to hold the
Emphasis can be achieved in a number of ways:
Contrast achieves emphasis by setting the point of emphasis
apart from the rest of its background. Various kinds of contrasts
are possible. The use of a neutral background isolates the
point of emphasis.
Contrast of color, texture, or shape will call attention
to a specific point, and contrast of size or scale will as
Unity is the underlying principle that summarizes all of the
principles and elements of design. Unity can be achieved through
the effective and consistent use of any of the elements.