Peter F. Ffolliott
John L. Thames
Guidelines for Planning
Coordination in Development
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[C] 1983 CODEL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter I USERS
should use this manual?
is a small-scale forestry project?
purpose does this manual serve?
Chapter II A
should planning be approached?
What is the planning process?
this process definitive?
education and training necessary?
FORESTRY AND THE ENVIRONMENT
is meant by ecology and the environment?
What is forestry?
are forestry and the environment related?
are forest ecosystems?
do trees protect the productivity of ecosystems?
is meant by forest succession?
Is there an ecological
difference between natural and
are limiting factors?
environmental concepts be used in developing successful
small-scale forestry projects?
UNDERSTANDING FORESTRY PRACTICES
is it necessary to have a knowledge of good forestry
trees should be grown?
can forest growth be improved?
is it important to protect forests from destructive
is the forest inventoried?
are trees harvested for wood products?
UNDERSTANDING INSTITUTIONAL LIMITATIONS
are institutional limitations?
are legal considerations important?
are social considerations important?
are economic considerations incorporated into planning?
BACKGROUND FOR PLANNING:
MULTIPLE-USE FORESTRY PROGRAMS
is meant by multiple -use?
should -multiple use forestry be practiced?
are multiple -use benefits and costs measured?
is multiple -use forestry environmentally sound?
there alternatives to multiple -use?
BACKGROUND FOR PLANNING:
HARVESTING TREES FOR WOOD PRODUCTS
wood products can be made?
secondary and other by -products important?
should trees for wood products be harvested?
wood products be harvested without environmental damage?
BACKGROUND FOR PLANNING:
FUELWOOD MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS
is fuelwood management important?
is the heat content of wood?
are energy input and output relationships used in
trees should be grown?
does fuelwood management affect the environment?
fuelwood management be integrated with other forestry
BACKGROUND FOR PLANNING:
there a general agro-forestry system?
are the environmental benefits of agro-forestry
What are the social and economic
benefits of agro-forests?
problems might arise in developing agro-forestry
are the elements in planning environmentally sound
BACKGROUND FOR PLANNING:
SHELTERBELT AND WIND-BREAK
are shelterbelts and wind-breaks?
do shelterbelts function?
should shelterbelts be structured?
patterns should be considered?
spacing should be used between shelterbelts?
characteristics should the plant species have?
are shelterbelts established?
should sheiterbelts be managed?
are the environmental effects of shelterbelts?
BACKGROUND FOR PLANNING:
REFORESTATION AND AFFORESTATION
is meant by reforestation and afforestation?
is it important to plan reforestation projects?
environmental factors are important?
tree species should be selected?
should be considered in obtaining planting stock?
should seeds be obtained?
is necessary in planning site preparation?
CHAPTER XII OTHER
small-scale forestry projects not discussed important?
additional information available?
Ecological MiniGuidelines for Small-Scale Community
This manual is
the third volume of the Guidelines for Planning
Series. The first
volume, Environmentally Sound Small-Scale
Agricultural Projects, was published in 1979; it is now
in French and Spanish.
The second volume, Environmentally Sound
Small-Scale Water Projects, was published in 1981.
can be ordered from VITA.
This manual has
been written for community development workers
in Third World countries who are not technicians in the area
of forestry, but who want some general guidelines for
environmentally sound small-scale forestry projects.
Environment and Development Committee has guided
the development of the Guidelines for Planning Series and
acknowledges the contribution of the members of the
Committee who commented on drafts of the booklet:
Joe Braun, Missionaries of Africa,
Elizabeth Enloe, Church World Service
Gerardi, Attorney at Law
Mahaffey, The Peace Corps
Rev. John L.
Ostdiek, Franciscan Missionary Union of
Overby, The World Bank
Pall, International Division, YMCA
Mr. C. Anthony
Pryor, Center for Integrative Development
Mr. A. Keith
Smiley, Mohonk Consultations on the Earth's
Tillman, Cary Arboretum
In addition, a
number of reviewers read a draft of the text
J. E. M.
Arnold, U.N. Food and Agricultural
Diamond, International Division, YMCA
Gregersen, University of Minnesota
USDA Forest Service
Saunier, Organization of American States
Stevens, UN Food and Agriculture Organization
other members of the forestry staff of
The book was
also reviewed by VITA volunteers and AID
Ms. Molly Kux,
AID Office of Forestry, Environment and
Natural Resources, has been uniquely helpful in identifying
authors and moving the project forward.
Ms. Kux and Mr. Albert
Printz, AID Environmental Coordinator, continue to support
encourage the Environment and Development Program and,
the Guidelines for Planning Series.
The AID Office
of Private and Voluntary Cooperation has
supported the development of the CODEL Environment and
gratefully acknowledges their contribution to the
publication of this volume.
A special note
of gratitude is owed to Carol Roever who has
worked with the Environment and Development Program since
inception, and who contributed her accumulated expertise to
production of this booklet.
CODEL is pleased
to publish this book by two noted
authorities in the field of Watershed Resourses
biographies of the authors can be found at the end of the
comments from readers of the book. A
is enclosed for your convenience.
Please share your reactions
Boyd Lowry, Executive Director
Helen L. Vukasin, Environment and
The need to plan
environmentally sound small-scale forestry
projects, especially in Third World countries, is increasing
greater demands are placed on forest-based resources.
has been written to assist development workers and others in
planning these projects.
It is impossible to consider all of the
possible multiple wood products from trees and multiple uses
forest ecosystem in a given locale.
The authors hope that the
guidelines presented in this manual will furnish a point of
departure for environmentally sound planning of small-scale
It is important
to note that planning guidelines for small-scale
forestry projects to be implemented in humid, temperate, or
arid forest ecosystems have been grouped together, whenever
Certainly, specific guidelines may be more appropriate to
one particular forest ecosystem than another.
However, it was the
authors' opinion that many guidelines are general in nature,
their applications may be independent of forest ecosystems.
To a large
extent, this booklet is intended to complement
others in the Guidelines for Planning Series co-published by
Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Agricultural Projects
and Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects.
contributions to and suggestions for the preparation
of this manual, the authors owe a debt to many, including:
Samuel H. Kunkle and John H. Dieterich, USDA Forest Service;
Richard E. Saunier, Organization of American States; Hans M.
Gregerson, University of Minnesota; J. E. M. Arnold and
Stevens, UN Food and Agriculture Organization; Michael
National Council of the YMCA, Fred Weber, author of
in Arid Lands (VITA 1977), and Molly Kux, U.S. Agency for
authors wish to express their gratitude to Helen
L. Vukasin, CODEL, Environment and Development Program, for
support throughout the preparation of this manual.
Peter F. Ffolliott
University of Arizona
John L. Thames
CHAPTER I: USERS AND USES
An area in Kenya desperately needed water in 1976.
There were no
permanent sources of water and only one well in the local
To help this situation, a cooperative project involving the
Kenya Forestry Department was initiated to build catchment
and to plant trees in the Hurri Hills.
The Hurri Hills are the
lifeline of the Gabra people, who graze their cattle and
Therefore, the wishes and needs of the tribe were
critical in planning the project.
As a result, the project personnel
worked with the community, after first carrying out research
to determine appropriate dam sites and trees to be planted.
Gabra elders participated in the supervision of the project,
local people were trained to maintain dams and to plant
Local labor was hired from as many households as possible.
Who should use this manual?
This manual can
be useful to development workers and those
interested in planning, implementation, or management of
forestry projects who wish to:
Become aware of major factors that should be
small-scale forestry projects,
Become acquainted with the potential of
contribute to the quality of life of rural
to local economies,
Learn how to protect the life support system
through environmental relationships between
agriculture and other land use.
What is a small-scale forestry project?
The type of
forestry planning discussed in this manual is for
projects developed at a local farm level and primarily for
benefit of the local people.
These projects could include only
one or two farmsteads with land holdings of a few hectares,
they could involve an entire rural community in a
effort extending over several hundred hectares.
production in rural areas, people cannot be sustained.
Unless the land produces abundantly, on a sound ecological
basis, a country is in difficulty.
Nevertheless, people who work
the land are the most vulnerable members of society.
They are the
first to feel the effects of hard times.
forestry projects can help moderate the ups and downs of
economies by providing sustained products over long time
This should be a goal of planning small-scale forestry
What purpose does this manual provide?
planning involves the often more difficult task of
understanding and working within social and economic
which, invariably, prevail at national, regional, and local
in all countries.
This is beyond the scope of this manual.
it is hoped that this manual will enable development workers
to understand technical and environmental issues which are
ultimate basis for planning and implementing sound projects.
the manual has two main goals:
To promote technically planned and
To assist in the transfer of technology by
manual as a
tool for education and extension.
The purpose of
this manual is to present an introduction to
the planning of small-scale forestry projects, particularly
they may be integrated with agricultural and other land
scope of the manual is limited to technical and
aspects of small-scale forestry projects.
CHAPTER II: A PLANNING PROCESS
Projects are not necessarily transferable from one region to
another, even if the projects are designed to eliminate the
example, the Lorena stove, a stove which reduces
the amount of smoke output, has been beneficial in
Lorena stoves were also introduced to villages in Africa to
smoke-related diseases and increase cooking
in one area insect-carried diseases increased because
formerly kept away by the smoke from open hearths,
Consequently, the new stoves were abandoned pending a
solution to this new problem.
capable of growing trees have limits in size and
ability to produce or sustain goods and services.
contribute to the well-being of people only if they are
managed and protected.
To attain specific goals, a proper balance
is needed between social and economic benefits derived from
and uses, and the social and economic costs required for
operation and administration.
To achieve this balance, planning
How should planning be approached?
with a dialogue whereby local people assess
their needs, define their goals and objectives, and agree on
methods for reaching the objectives.
The results of this dialogue
is a consensus which has emerged from discussions among
members and is endorsed by the community and development
This shared responsibility and understanding of an approach
objective or problem is especially critical for small-scale
projects for two reasons:
Because economic and social issues are so
Because long periods of nurturing and
for forestry projects to yield noticeable
has not occurred if a development worker arrives
in a location and unilaterally decides that the village can
benefit from a woodlot project in an area used by villagers
graze their animals.
This early dialogue between villagers and
development workers (who share their knowledge and goals and
upon a particular approach to solve a mutually agreed upon
makes it more likely that a mutually endorsed objective can
be achieved. Trees
are planted by people and cared for by people
to ultimately benefit the people.
The emphasis is on people, not
and small-scale-forestry projects will
flourish only if the people care.
Whether or not they care depends,
in large part, upon their participation in the planning
Planning to meet the needs
of local people -- food,
as well as fuel.
Planning can be
time-consuming. However, without this
between development workers and villagers, a project is
likely to be delayed in its implementation or neglected
has been implemented because project designs may be
for local conditions and needs.
A commitment to share the
decision-making process with the community does not
a plan will succeed, but it is a prerequisite for the
support needed to maintain a project.
"animating" or facilitating village discussions
are discussed in various sources.
For example, the Lik-Lik Buk is
Other references are listed in the bibliography
at the end of this manual.
What is the planning process?
planning process follows a sequence of several
phases. Although the
overall process might be described in different
ways, the major steps are:
Identifying problems and objectives by the
Establishing/identifying criteria of
will carry on the project.
Evaluating various alternatives and
in selection of a project.
quantitative techniques may be used to aid in completing
the basic phases of a planning process.
Some of these quantitative
techniques can be quite detailed and require the use of
computer programs and simulation techniques.
Customarily, a development
worker will not have ready access to computer programs
and simulation techniques.
In the latter
instances, it is helpful to have a checklist of
steps to be considered as planning proceeds.
The following diagram
illustrates the various stages in a planning process.
1. Define the
problem, both in terms of sociological and
development workers must understand and
agree on the
problem to be addressed by the potential
Special studies and information collecting
be needed once
the problem is defined. For instance,
a problem is
defined as lack of fuelwood within a
reasonable walking distance of a village,
population and history of cooking activities
may be needed,
as well as information on the history of
the area. Obviously, much of this
can come from the villagers knowledge of
history. This information may be
from local universities or development
working in the area. Sometimes, this is
"needs assessment" or "needs identification"
Whatever the label, a sound planning process
gathering this information at an early
2. Specify goals
and objectives of the project.
involvement in specifying objectives and setting
among them is critical. If the
involved at this stage in the planning process,
little chance that the project will be
sustained over a long period of time.
3. Establish a
model of the system in which the project
problem has been defined and the project
clarified, it becomes imperative to consider
how those objectives
can be met within the established
cultural setting. Therefore, a model
established of the physical and cultural setting
in which the
project will be implemented; this is a
of how that part of the real world
It can be done in various forms -- simple
network diagrams, or sets of detailed mathematical
equations. The important thing
to remember is
"model" should be as complete and accurate as
The "model" includes two types of
social descriptions, as well as information
physical or ecological setting. This
can serve as baseline data which will be
the project is evaluated.
criteria of acceptance.
guidelines against which project alternatives
evaluated. No single set of criteria
judging the applicability of a proposed
ECONOMIC objectives, as outlined in the
institutional limitations, are often used as
criteria. In addition, SOCIAL and
acceptance are of the utmost importance in
alternative projects; e.g., will grazing patterns
in such a way and extent as to encourage
among groups in the community? Will
available to control poaching?
there are some general ECOLOGICAL guidelines
which can be
applied to the various types of
projects discussed in this manual.
would require that projects:
Provide sustained benefits over long
while meeting current needs of the community.
Conserve forest ecosystem and protect the
indigenous plant and animal populations.
Be developed to provide multiple benefits.
Maintain or improve soil productivity.
Use water efficiently and maintain or
Use tree species appropriate to the local
Only use new species which have been tested
suitability to local site.
Encourage the use of rapid growing, high
Protect the forest from destructive agents.
Cut trees at appropriate biological and
times, if wood products are to be
Harvest in a manner which does not disrupt
forest (soil protection, water production,
animal habitat) and which maintains site
if wood products are to be harvested.
Criteria or guidelines which reflect the principles of
TECHNOLOGY or appropriate development have to be considered
as well. These
require that a project should:
Make optimal use of locally available
Have community support and involvement.
Be based on community-identified and/or
Increase potential for community
short and long-term.
Be compatible with available funding.
Make use of and adapt traditional
Have reasonable time frame for the
responsibility for the project.
Have potential for being maintained and
appropriate technology guidelines are taken from an
earlier volume of the Guidelines for Planning Series,
Sound Small-Scale Water Projects.)
alternatives,including both project
and alternate implementation methods.
is seldom a "right way" to approach a
project alternatives and alternate implementation
to be considered in a creative, yet,
way. The appropriateness of dogmas from
should be examined in terms of the baseline
in the first step of planning and
constraints of the model developed in step 3.
situation is unique; each project should
uniqueness of the setting.
do nothing (meaning, not to implement any
forestry project) is a valid alternative
which must be
alternatives against specific criteria of
At this stage
of the planning process, trade-offs are
the course of action is selected.
continues to be essential. Does the
CULTURAL, ECOLOGICAL, and ECONOMIC criteria?
compatible with the model?
7. Select best
course of action, both in terms of a
project and the methods for implementation.
8. Implement the
9. Review and
critique progress of the project with the
making adjustments as needed.
collected when the "model" was formulated will
useful here as the effects of the project are
Is this process definitive?
No -- this is
not "the" definitive planning process.
above discussion makes the process sound very neat and
Development workers with even limited experience know that
anything but that.
The steps suggested here must be adapted to
suit individual situations.
Other checklists may be more appropriate
or may be used to supplement the steps discussed here.
instance, the Mini-Guidelines developed by Fred Weber (see
at the end of this manual) may be used to evaluate project
alternatives and evaluate trade-offs.
Regardless of the quantitative
techniques employed or checklists used, the key to good
planning is to achieve flexibility within predetermined
principles behind the process are important in
any developmental situation.
Cultural and ecological factors
usually coexist in a developmental setting.
It is always important
to maintain a continuing dialogue between development
and community members, whereby resources and outlooks are
These principles are relevant to the development worker who
present when the planning is just beginning or who arrives
midst of implementing a project.
The specific steps may be
changed, but the principles of the process endure.
Are education and training necessary?
Yes, both are
The goal of development
education and training,
which make this goal attainable,
are not one-directional.
dialogue in the planning
process, education and
training have to be two-directional:
process between the resources
of a development
worker and the resources
and knowledge of the local
projects may not show
immediate results like
which can produce new
crops after one growing
season, it is critical
that dialogue and interaction
between all parties
involved be continuous and
conducted in a genuine
spirit of sharing.
FORESTRY AND THE ENVIRONMENT
As in other tropical countries around the world, the rain
forests of Bolivia are being depleted at an alarming rate.
Clearing forests for agricultural and range use by small
and others contribute to the forest depletions.
can be done to reverse the situation, involved agencies must
understand the ecology and limitations of the forests, as well
the situation of the small farmers with neither financial
nor know-how to utilize high technology.
What is meant by ecology and the environment?
The study of plants,
animals and humans (as
and communities), in relation
to their biological
and physical surroundings
is called ecology.
on the other
hand, refers collectively
to the biological and physical
plants, animals and humans.
Also, as dealt with in
this manual, the environment
social, economic and legal
aspects that must be considered
sound small-scale forestry
What is forestry?
Forestry is the
practice of managing forests and associated
natural resources for desired goals, with ecology providing
Forestry is also defined as a profession involving
the science, business, and art of managing, creating and
conserving forests and associated natural resources for the
use of their values by people.
It is important
to note that while growing trees is an essential
part of forestry, other vegetation (including grasses and
grass-like plants, forbs, and shrubs) and natural resources
water, wildlife, recreation, and minerals) must be considered
planning environmentally sound small-scale forestry
desire to produce wood products (such as saw timber,
fruits) should not lead to a disregard for the other values
How are forestry and the environment related?
activities, regardless of their purpose or scale, take
place within a complex system of biological, physical,
social, and economic factors, that comprise the environment.
Therefore, in planning a small-scale forestry project, all
factors in this complex system need to be considered.
worker will have to look beyond technical designs to
the interrelationships among the environmental factors in
determining project feasibility.
What are forest ecosystems?
When viewing a
site for a proposed project a development
worker is looking at a kind of ecosystem.
An ecosystem is the
basic unit in ecology.
It is a complex system including plants,
animals, and humans in their environment that can be
isolated for purposes of planning.
ecosystems, there are producers, consumers,
predators (and scavengers), and decomposers.
Forest plants are
producers and are able to convert sunlight and nutrients
plant tissues. Many
of these plant tissues are used as food by
consumers (such as insects, birds, rodents, domestic
man). When consumers
eat other animals, they become predators.
Decomposers (chiefly bacteria and fungi), break down dead
some of the products of decomposition, and
release substances for use by producers.
Interactions among producers,
consumers, predators, and decomposers, which define a
"food web," must be analyzed when planning an
small-scale forestry project is implemented, relationships
among living organisms and their environment are usually
changed. If there
have been no major changes in recent years, a
forest ecosystem is probably in balance.
In other words, it is
self-perpetuating and in equilibrium with the
decision to change the ecosystem (for example, by harvesting
products) must be made with an awareness of the existing
and an understanding of how the change will affect the
within that system.
How do trees protect the productivity of ecosystems?
Soils are basic
to the productivity of any ecosystem.
protect soils from wind by serving as wind-breaks, from
intercepting rainfall (so that it can be more slowly
soils), and from the sun by providing shade.
This protection, in
turn, allows dead organic materials to decompose and
releasing nutrients for growth of forest plants.
materials on top of the soils also retain moisture,
water for plant growth.
What can happen
when the protection of trees is taken away
and not replaced by other vegetation may be illustrated
Winds can pick up and blow away dead organic
thereby, dry out soils, resulting in a lessening of
Nutrient-rich soils may be dislodged by
away by surface runoff, again lessening the
of a site.
Trees maintain soil porosity (a measure of
the space in
a soil body
not occupied by solids, important in determining
of soil aeration), absorb rainfall,
retard runoff which, in turn, protects villages
agricultural crops from floods. With
the removal of
protection against flooding can also disappear.
Primary sources of saw timber, fuelwood, and
products are no longer available for local
Diversity of plants and animals is affected,
disappearing due to a loss of suitable habitat
food and cover).
Recreational values such as hunting and
What is meant by forest succession?
process of change in the composition of a forest
ecosystem is called forest succession.
These changes take place
in response to changes in the environment and in response to
climatic and site
factors that are changed by the forest vegetation
succession occurs on newly exposed sites
(such as lava flows and sand dunes), whereas secondary
occurs after the previous forest plants are destroyed or
(by fire or agricultural operations, for example).
for a long time, forest ecosystems evolve from
initially bare areas into a final, stabilized type of
into a dominant type of vegetation through a series of
steps. This dominant
vegetation is called the climax
forest type. Once
established, no other tree species can naturally
invade and replace the climax, unless the type is subjected
an external form of destruction or disturbance.
Also, a change in
one or more of the climatic or site factors that brought the
forest climax into existence can result in the replacement
worker should understand these successional
projects can have major impacts on succession, such
as causing erosion of top soils, or reducing the level of
impacts, in turn, can either be reversible or
irreversible by natural processes.
If reversible, it is possible
to have regeneration of the forest; if irreversible the
may be deforestation or desertification.
Areas can be
found around the world where man cleared forests
hundreds of years ago, and the unprotected sites have
barren and unproductive -- an example of the process of
Is there an ecological difference between natural and
Yes -- there are
important ecological differences between
natural and man-made forests (or plantations) which must be
into consideration when planning a small-scale forestry
that is environmentally sound.
regenerate naturally, either by natural seeding
or from vegetative reproduction of plants on the site.
but not always, natural forests are comprised of several
tree species, with the trees having different ages.
established, and if not disturbed or destroyed, natural
forests will proceed along well defined successional
may be necessary to hold back succession and to check the
encroachment of the less valuable trees.
This is why controlled
burning to discourage forest succession is considered a good
forestry practice in some situations.
are regenerated artificially, either by
sowing or planting -- this is a man-made forest ecosystem.
Depending upon the purpose, man-made forests often consist
single tree species (either native or introduced), with the
having one age.
What are limiting factors?
To occur and
thrive in a given situation, trees must have
basic nutrients which are necessary for reproduction and
These basic requirements vary with tree species and with the
nutrients available in amounts closely approaching
the critical minimum need for reproduction and growth tend
be limiting factors.
ecosystems are inherently able to support a number of
plants, animals and humans.
The limits of this support are determined
by the availability of the essential materials for life;
this limit is referred to as the biological potential of the
Obviously, the biological potential of a fertile flood plain
higher than that of an arid upland of the same area because
greater amounts of water, more nutrients, and better soils
biological potential can be improved by increasing
the availability of limiting factors.
For example, forest production
can often be increased by adding fertilizer or water; or, in
the case where pests (such as insects) are limiting, pest
may be required to improve the biological potential.
limiting factors, it is important to remember
Satisfying the most obvious limiting factor
problem. In fact, increasing the
limiting factor may reveal the presence of
for example, when a forester adds fertilizer,
discover that tree growth is limited by too
Changing existing conditions by increasing
factors can harm organisms that have
living under the existing conditions.
There are limits to the amounts of nutrients
materials that plants can utilize. Too
can be as detrimental as not enough.
Can environmental concepts be used in developing successful
By analyzing potential
ecological changes that can be brought
about by implementing a project, and by placing these
changes (including both good and bad effects) into
terms of environmental impacts, a development worker can
feasibility of the project with respect to possible
requires awareness of:
Environmental concepts as they relate to the
project under consideration.
A basic planning process, as outlined in
Chapter 2 of
IV: UNDERSTANDING FORESTRY PRACTICES
In 1976, a unique afforestation project was funded by a PVO
India. It was unique
because all of the land in the project area
was supplied by small farmers, directly linking the fate of
farmers to the fate of the project.
The idea was to plant timber
and fuelwood trees on wastelands, and fruit trees on fallow
Hopefully, the trees would provide income and
food, while acting to retain water in the soil.
By 1980, the soil
conditions had been improved, and enough income had been
from sale of trees to distribute some of the receipts among
Why is it necessary to have a knowledge of good forestry
It is important that a development worker
have some knowledge
of good forestry practices to predict whether ecological
that result from small-scale forestry activities are
This manual is
not intended to be a "how to" reference on
technical forestry practices.
A list of references on forestry
practices for use in the planning of environmentally sound
forestry projects can be found in a bibliography at the end
of this manual.
However, a brief introduction to principles of
selecting trees to grow, improving forest growth, protecting
forests from destructive agents, inventorying forest
and harvesting wood products can provide helpful background
in determining whether or not a given project should be
What trees should be grown?
regeneration of trees already in an area often dictates
the tree species which should be grown.
In these situations,
a development worker may have little choice but to develop
a project with existing tree species in mind.
regeneration through planting of seeds or seedlings may be
needed. With respect
to artificial regeneration, a selection of
tree species must be made.
The question of
what tree species to plant is addressed best
at the local level.
Specific species of trees to be planted under
specific conditions requires planting guides.
Such guides, in
brief, should indicate what tree species are adaptable to
given soil, exposure, and degree of erosion.
guides are available for use in many of the forest
throughout the world.
Often, those guides can be localized to
assist in the planning of a project.
Below are some
broad guidelines for choosing tree species.
See Bibliography for specific tree selection information.
Native tree species from the area for which
silvacultural knowledge is available are usually the
Introduced tree species should be used with
suitability has been demonstrated by testing
in the area.
Whenever possible, select seeds or seedlings
Tree species (native or introduced) selected
the following requirements: ease of
seed or seedlings, ease of establishment,
insect or disease attacks, fast growth,
of useful forest products, social acceptability,
desirable wood-producing characteristics.
Seasonal precipitation patterns are
species to grow; tree species native to
rainfall areas usually will not thrive in summer
areas, although tree species native to summer
areas are likely to succeed in winter rainfall
As a general rule, tree species can be
their home to other sites on the same parallel
because of the similarity in climate;
some tree species are so exacting in their
that even a very small variation in season
of site factors may cause failure.
Tree species to be planted must fit the
purpose in view,
be saw timber, fuelwood, wind-breaks, or
To insure successful results, regardless of
the following considerations are important:
plant, how to plant, site preparation
and care after planting.
How can forest growth be improved?
respects, a forest is like a vegetable garden -- a
farmer cannot grow a good crop unless he does some weeding
thinning. It is the
same in a forest. When harvesting trees
wood products, consideration should be given to improving
quality and the condition for growth of the remaining trees
a good wood crop in the future.
diagrams and explanations illustrate situations
where weeding and thinning of trees may improve forest
Trees 1, 4, 7, and 10 are healthy trees with
and are making rapid growth.
These should not be cut
are large enough to be harvested as saw
markets are available.
Tree 2 has a dead top, is subject to disease
will probably die soon. This tree
Tree 3 hinders or suppresses growth of
nearby trees and
underneath. It is called a "wolf
should be removed.
Tree 5 is a forked tree with poor form that
use in high quality wood products. This
cut and utilized as soon as possible.
Tree 6 is a suppressed tree that will never
anything of value. This tree should be
as fuelwood, poles, or posts.
Tree 8 is a crooked and poorly formed tree
as for Tree
Tree 9 originated as a stump sprout which,
is rotten on
the inside or will be if it joins the
very high up. This tree should be cut
Tree 11 has a weak and narrow crown and not
as a crop
tree. It is called a "whip
be cut and utilized before it dies, breaks
Tree 12 is a fire-scarred tree with a
decayed stem. It
cut and utilized.
Tree 13 is a dead tree that is probably not
trees. If it cannot be used as a wood
there may be
no object in cutting it. Often, a dead
tree may be
beneficial to wildlife.
Tree group 14 consists of trees that are
small in diameter
growing too close together. These
leaving only the best formed and the most
ones, permitting their faster growth.
have value as fuelwood, poles, or posts.
illustrated above apply, in general, to
forests which have not been heavily grazed by domestic
and which have a fairly large number of trees.
In a heavily grazed
forest with a few trees, the best way to improve forest
be through complete protection.
It is important
to understand that weeding and thinning of
trees will not usually cause trees to grow taller.
elimination of crowding among trees will increase diameter
which has a greater impact on future volume and value.
A practice that
may not directly improve forest growth, but
often enhances the value of commercial trees, is
pruning. As used
in forestry, pruning consists of cutting off the side
trees so that the wood subsequently formed on the stem will
free of knots.
Knot-free trees are of higher value for saw timber
and plywood; also, poles and posts cut from knot-free trees
greater strength than those cut from knotty trees.
Why is it important to protect forests from destructive
crops have their enemies. Forests are
particular, fire, insects, diseases, grazing by
domestic animals, and even man can destroy (or at least
the productivity of unprotected forests.
In spite of
campaigns about potential
fire damage, forest owners
often do not heed the
warnings. At times,
fail to understand
that small fires burning
slowly along the ground
can kill small trees, even
though larger trees are
not killed. Only
when a fire gets out of control and threatens
buildings and other holdings do they become aroused.
of combustion - heat, oxygen, and fuel - are
often pictured as a triangle.
The "fire triangle," a graphical
representation of the three components of combustion, is
training people to fight fires.
A fire fighter's job is to break
up this combination by:
removing the fuel, reducing or removing
the supply of oxygen, or reducing the temperature below the
important step in the control of fire is prevention;
an enlightened public is the best form of fire prevention.
conditions, fire-breaks, or barriers,
good insurance. A
satisfactory fire-break can be made by plowing
a strip about a harrow wide around a forest, and then
open by subsequent harrowings.
when they occur, are of three general types,
each of which requires a different form of control:
Ground fire, in which the organic soil is
burned, can be
by saturating the ground with water, if
or by digging a trench down to mineral soil
A crown fire, which spreads through the tops
is the most
difficult for man to control; in fact, about
all that can
be done is to check such fires to warn
The most common type of fire is one that
burns on the
surface. It is most frequently
controlled by scraping
flammable fuels immediately ahead of the fire.
destructive, controlled application of fire can
be prescribed in certain forest ecosystems to meet specific
Control of competing vegetation
Improvement of grazing
Wildlife habitat management
burning must be confined to a predetermined area
at an intensity of heat and rate of spread required to
desired effects. To
achieve success, a development worker should
consult with local fire management specialists in preparing
appropriate prescribed burning program.
Insects and Diseases
Damage to a
from insects and diseases
is, in general, in direct
proportion to the misuse
of the forest. Fire,
grazing by domestic animals,
and even excessive
cutting of a forest often
lowers the natural resistance
of trees, permitting
insect and disease pests
to get a foothold.
Also, trees growing in an unsuitable environment
can become weakened and invite hosts to epidemics.
occur, there is usually no practical control
except to remove and, if possible, utilize the infested or
control measures, such as the use of
insecticides, must be practiced with extreme care.
In some instances,
use of chemicals can be more damaging to an environment
than the existence of the pest being controlled by the
Grazing by Domestic Livestock
grazing by domestic
animals can be more harmful
to trees (by destroying
seedlings and saplings
through browsing and trampling)
than almost any
other destructive agent.
Furthermore, a farmer or
herder who uses a forest
for a pasture can, under
certain situations, cause a loss not only to himself but to
livestock as well.
Forage grown under a forest cover can be
poorer, in both quantity and quality, than that grown in
may have the proper technology
to practice good
forestry, man can unknowingly
damage or destroy
forest crops. For
it may become necessary,
education and training, to
reinforce the concept of
protecting (and respecting)
highly vulnerable young trees.
Otherwise, mature and fully-stocked
forests may not be attained.
The key to the
problem may be motivation -- people may need
to be motivated to realize the results of protection and, as
consequence, a productive forest.
How is the forest inventoried?
inventory is concerned, for the most part, with
measurements of individual trees, forest stands, growth
measurements form a basis for estimating the
volume of standing trees that can be harvested for wood
The most commonly made tree measurements are:
Diameter of the tree stem, usually taken at
ground for standardization and convenience;
are commonly measured in centimeters.
Height of the tree, either total or to the
top of that
can be sold, heights are measured in terms of
obtaining diameter and height measurements are
outlined in references on forestry practices at the end of
of diameter and height, the volume of a tree
can be determined from a volume table.
This table specifies the
volume of a tree, usually in terms of cubic meters, from
and height measurements.
If appropriate volume tables are not
available for use, consult local or regional foresters who
specific knowledge regarding the calculation or volume of
Care should must
be exercised in estimating the volume of
shrubby trees with crooked, multiple stems, rather than
ones. Often, local
measurement customs may be employed in these
objective of many forest inventories is to
obtain an estimate of the number of trees in relation to the
volume of trees, on a hectare basis, in a forest.
are a few trees of exceptionally high quality involved in
case a complete tally may be made only a sample of trees is
selected for measurement.
In general, tree measurements recorded
on sample areas (one-tenth-hectare plots, for example) are
to the total area under consideration.
Many options of plot
size and sampling design exist; those selected by the
worker should be consistent with the purpose of the forest
growth of trees is, by definition, their volume
divided by their age.
While the volume of a tree is relatively
easy to approximate, determination of age is more
general, there are three common methods used to estimate the
of a tree -- by appearance (size, shape of crown, and
bark), by branch whorls, or by annual rings.
growth is not characterized by annual rings in many forest
of the world, particularly those occurring in the humid
average growth of trees is important in helping
to determine when wood products should be harvested from
Typically, average growth of trees increases slowly, attains
maximum, and then falls more gradually.
As mentioned in Chapter 7
of this manual, the ages at which maximum average growth is
is often regarded as an ideal time to harvest trees for
site quality is important in identifying productivity,
both present and future, of forests.
productivity, in turn, is useful in long-term planning.
quality is the aggregate of all environmental factors
growth and survival of trees in a forest.
Various approaches, too
numerous to present in this manual, have been devised to
site quality. The
approach selected by a development worker
should reflect local forest conditions and, to be useful,
only easily obtained measures for interpretation.
How are trees harvested for wood products?
products involves considerable skill, tools,
knowledge and equipment to do a creditable job.
wedges, and sledges are all that are necessary to
fell trees and cut them into desired lengths.
are finding their place in many harvesting operations.
while they make the harvesting job easier, their high cost
make them uneconomical, except in large operations.
After trees are
felled and cut into desired lengths, they
must be carried or pulled to a loading point.
If tree lengths are
too heavy to carry, a simple drag or sled can be used to
them, using an available power source such as a tractor or a
employed method of loading tree lengths on a
vehicle is the "cross-haul" method.
One end of a chain or cable
is attached to the underside of the vehicle to be loaded,
other end is placed under the tree lengths to a tractor or
Two poles, large enough to bear the weight of
the tree lengths, are placed against the vehicle, as shown
for wood products should be done with an eye
toward good forestry practices.
Before a tree is cut, the following
questions should be answered:
Is the tree to be cut the size needed to be
Is the tree the best species available for
Is the tree ripe, or does it show signs of
from old age
or from insects and diseases? Evidence
deterioration might suggest that the tree should be cut.
Is the tree growing rapidly, and does it
have a full
smooth bark? If so, the tree is
perhaps should be retained as part of the
stock for future harvesting.
What kind of plant reproduction will result
It should be remembered that preventing
of brush and
other comparatively worthless plant
one of the principal aims of good forestry.
countries in the world, fuelwood is harvested
not by felling and cutting trees into desired lengths, but
by simply picking up branchwood, leaves, and other woody
from a forest floor.
Often, women and small children are responsible
for fuelwood gathering, which can take them far distances
from their homes.
and other by-products of the forest, such as
fruits and nuts, are also harvested through gathering
again in many instances by women and children.
V: UNDERSTANDING INSTITUTIONAL
The Ministry of Natural Resources is the lawful Philippine
agency created to strike a balance between exploitation
and replenishment of natural resources, and between conservation
and use. The
objectives of the Ministry are: to
status of the country's natural resources for their
exploitation and use; to provide for their replacement; to
revitalize, develop, and manage the country's natural
for present and future generations; and to increase the
productivity of the country's natural resources in reference
their current exploitation and use.
What are institutional limitations?
In reality, two
sets of limitations determine the degree of
success of a small-scale forestry project.
First, there are
natural limitations, involving biological and physical
Second, there are institutional limitations to forestry
activities, which are every bit as important as natural
the planning of an effective project.
limitations, unlike natural limitations, are
established by man to meet specific conditions and,
be modified by man in response to changes in legal, social,
Why are legal considerations important?
Perhaps the most
important of the institutional limitations
of a small-scale forestry project involves legal
which are limitations sanctioned by law.
In general, two primary
areas of law must be regarded in the formulation of a
laws which address ownership and use of the products of
resources, and laws which regulate the use of land or land
worker should consult with local authorities to
be sure that a small-scale forestry project can be
within the existing legal framework.
When are social considerations important?
considerations, as discussed above, are "formalized
rules" that guide the conduct of man.
Less explicit, but equally
important, are guidelines derived from other cultural
a society -- from tradition, religion and folklore.
As with laws,
considerations must be reflected in the decision-making
process. Failure to
do so can lead to adverse reactions
that can severely restrict one's freedom.
considerations determine, in part, the options
available to a planner of environmentally sound small-scale
From the flood plains of the Mekong River
Basin to the fragile desert environments of northwestern
situations can be found in which social patterns restrict
of a particular forestry practice.
constraints are often difficult to assess.
not usually susceptible to easy solution and can easily be
ignored. However, to
do so is folly. To increase the
of environmentally sound forest management, it is essential
include local people in planning objectives of the project.
Training and public education are also important.
How are economic considerations incorporated into planning?
worker must select the best course of action in
implementing a forestry practice, given alternative
decision among alternatives to select often requires
Although a part of the institutional framework,
economics involves certain patterns of rational analysis,
techniques of which are well known for many situations.
To make an
economic analysis of alternative courses of
action, three general objectives can form a basis of choice.
These objectives are:
Maximization of benefits.
Maximization of the returns on investment.
Achievement of a specified "production
goal" at the
these objectives can give a development worker
and local people a better understanding of the economic
of selecting a particular course of action.
To analyze the
first two objectives, responses to alternative
courses of action and costs of implementation must be
information can be obtained from previous local
the course of action is newly adopted, the development
seek available prediction techniques.
To satisfy the
third objective, goals should be established
for various levels of production.
These goals are most effective
if set according to values of local residents, coupled with
goals derived through the political process.
CHAPTER VI: BACKGROUND FOR
MULTIPLE-USE FORESTRY PROGRAMS
Eucalyptus is a fast-growing tree, which is also valuable
lumber and fuelwood.
To plant more Eucalyptus in Upper Volta, all
ground cover was cleared, including bushes with edible
The primary source of food for the local people was porridge
topped by a sauce made of these leaves.
As it turned out, the
Eucalyptus leaves are not edible.
Therefore, the health of the
local people was seriously impaired, as they lost an
What is meant by multiple use?
"multiple use" has many different meanings.
applied to land areas, multiple use refers to the management
variety of natural resource products and uses on a unit of
The relation of the natural resources to one another may be:
Competitive, where one must be sacrificed to
Complementary, where both increase or
Supplementary, where a change in one will
When applied to
a particular natural resource, multiple use
refers to the use of the natural resource for various
uses. For example,
trees may be harvested for saw timber, fuelwood,
or posts, or they may be used to produce fruit, seeds or
flowers. Forage may
have value as feed for domestic livestock, or
for watershed stabilization.
Water may be used for drinking,
irrigation, or fish habitats.
Here again, the use can be competitive,
complementary, or supplementary.
multiple use often involves both units of land
and natural resources.
Demands on a particular natural resource
(trees) for a specific use (fuelwood) place demands on the
area where the natural resources are produced (forests).
When should multiple-use forestry be practiced?
biological, social, and economic standpoint, multiple-use
forestry should be practiced whenever possible.
objective of multiple-use forestry is to manage the natural
of a forest for the most beneficial combination of present
and future uses. The
idea of maximizing the benefits derived from
the natural resources of a forest is not new, but it has
more important as people's demands for limited and often
natural resource products and uses increase.
It is important
to keep in mind that multiple-use management
of forests can be achieved by any one of the following
by any combination of the three:
Concurrent and continuous use of the natural
uses obtainable from a forest which ensures
of different goods and services from the same
Alternating or rotating uses of natural
periods of time.
Geographical separation of uses so that
across a mosaic of strata in a forest.
All of these
options are valid multiple-use forest management
practices which can be applied in the most suitable
point of view, multiple-use forest management
can involve a broader set of requirements than concern an
society is more interested in preserving
benefits for future generations, while an individual often
decisions based on desires to satisfy relatively short-term
If possible, effective multiple-use forestry projects should
the full spectrum of today's needs and provide for
How are multiple-use benefits and costs measured?
or not a project is worthwhile requires
measurements of anticipated benefits derived from all of the
natural resource products and uses of a forest and of costs
will to be incurred in implementing the project.
analyses of benefits and costs associated with alternative
may be necessary before a development worker can select the
best course of action.
Measurement of Benefits
those obtained from fuelwood, timber, forage
for animals, both domestic and wild, water production,
etc. Estimates of
these anticipated benefits can be obtained from
earlier work, from local experience, or through prediction
natural resource products and uses can be
summarized in a table form, known as a "product
mix." Such a
table describes multiple -use by quantitatively presenting
the products and uses obtained from a particular area.
mix developed before a project is implemented can form a
for comparison with product mixes representing conditions
These comparisons show what is gained and lost in
multiple-use terms and therefore provide a basis for
Product mix for alternative forestry practices being
for implementation in a hypothetical temperature forest
As is Convert
Timber cut ([m.sup.3])
Timber growth ([m.sup.3])
4.2 2. 5
Livestock (kg gain)
(number of deer)
(*) On one hectare, if things remain as they are
([T.sub.0]), the annual
output will be
4.2 cubic meters ([m.sup.3]) of timber growth, enough
forage for 0.068
kilograms (kg) of livestock gain, 0.021 deer,
centimeters (cm) of water. No timber
will be cut.
(*) With conversion of moist sites to grass ([T.sub.1]) the
will be 2.5 cubic
meters of timber growth, enough forage for
0.48 kilograms of livestock gain, 0.034 deer,
and 22 centimeters
Approximately 9.0 cubic meter of timber will
on each hectare.
(*) Columns [T.sub.2] and [T.sub.3] contain the elements of
uneven- and even-aged
(*) It is important to note that, if [T.sub.0] was judged as
advantages and disadvantages in natural resource
product and use
response, the existing management system should
It may be necessary to convert physical
expression of what is
gained and lost in multiple-use terms to corresponding
of monetary or other economic value.
If information is available,
this conversion can be achieved by simply multiplying physical
units by appropriate monetary values on a per unit
basis. In most
cases, it may not be possible to assign specific monetary
to the products and uses.
However, other indicators of economic
worth can possibly be assumed through personal judgements of
Measurement of Costs
implementing small-scale forestry projects usually
reflect a given economic situation over time.
costs that reflect local conditions may be available and, if
can be used to estimate costs of implementing various
Otherwise, a development worker may have to:
Estimate necessary inputs of labor time,
time (if required), and materials.
Determine overall costs by multiplying the
wage rates, machine rates, and material
then summing the product.
monetary values may have to be approximated from
personal judgements of local conditions and customs.
As mentioned in
Chapter 5 of this manual, to make an economic,
analysis of a project, such as a small-scale multiple-use
project, general objectives are usually considered to form a
for choice. In
reality, an economic analysis of such projects
consists of several economic analyses, each of which is
to help a development worker and local people make a better
economic analysis may yield a "one-answer solution"
the problem of selecting a project that maximizes returns
to the land. A group
of economic analyses, based on different
criteria, will result in an array of items for
Such an array could include the following:
Estimates of multiple -use production (such
saw timber or kilograms of forage) associated
alternative small-scale forestry projects.
Estimates of implementation costs of project
Least-cost solutions for different goals of
Gross and net benefits associated with a
range of possible
Investment returns and benefit-cost ratios
different project alternatives.
Project cost over time by using carefully selected
and interest rates which will be applied for
length of the rotation.
Consult Bibliography for additional information.
When is multiple-use forestry environmentally sound?
planning, and consideration of all of the possible
natural resource products and uses obtainable in a forest,
multiple-use forestry can be practiced in an environmentally
manner. Perhaps the
concept of planning for multiple-use can be
illustrated with an example.
conditions, harvesting of wood products and
grazing domestic animals are two uses that can occur
making full use of many forest ecosystems.
Harvesting trees for
wood products reduces the forest cover, which can improve
in terms of quantity and quality.
With improved forage, it may be
possible for additional domestic animals to be grazed.
situations, it can be to the advantage of a development
local people to consider potential multiple benefits from
uses, and plan accordingly.
should also be remembered that in other situations,
particularly in arid ecosystems, forage can only grow in
the shaded micro-environments underneath trees, as survival
possible in the open.
Here, it may become necessary to favor one
use as dominant, even though multiple-use may be a desired
harvesting (and more generally, growing) trees and
grazing by domestic animals can be joint uses of a forest
depends, in large part, on the kinds of animals being
development worker should realize that:
Grazing by cattle can be harmful in forests
and young succulent trees; cattle often browse
Grazing by goats and sheep, which eat almost
particularly damaging to forest ecosystems.
use of a
forest by these animals may have to be
Similarly, grazing by hogs can be quite
seedlings and young succulent trees to eat
In general, when
forests are used for harvesting trees for
wood products and grazing by domestic animals, carefully
harvesting operations can be carried out in conjunction with
controlled grazing to minimize detrimental environmental
Are there alternatives to multiple-use?
Early use of
forests, either natural or man-made, usually
emphasized a single product -- such as a particular wood
Although these forests had the potential for other uses,
attention was paid by local people to those natural resource
products and uses that were abundant.
takes place in Third World countries, peoples'
tastes change and cash income becomes available or
Primary products and uses resulting from forests being
a single product may not meet demand.
Consequently, pressure is
on the planner of small-scale forestry projects to recognize
multiple-use possibilities and to effectively maximize the
possible uses of the forest in planning projects.
CHAPTER VII: BACKGROUND FOR
HARVESTING TREES FOR WOOD PRODUCTS
Under the direction of the Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations, new forest plantations were created
Andhra Pradesh, India.
Plans called for these plantations to be
fenced in until ready for harvesting.
However, local farmers who
were desperately in need of lumber and fuelwood, and not
the possible future benefits of the plantations, poached so
that the new crop of trees was destroyed.
What wood products can be made?
Forests can be
managed in a manner that is similar to agricultural
croplands, although forestry is a long -term business
while agricultural crops are usually grown on annual
other crops, trees for wood products are harvested
and used locally or sold for profit.
harvesting trees for wood products involve recognition of
various products possible, understanding the specifications
quality standards of the products, and knowledge of when to
and when to market the products.
below focuses on a selection of wood products
commonly produced in Third World Countries.
For a more detailed
discussion of the subject, see the bibliography at end of
As discussed in
Chapter 8 of this manual, an increasingly
important use of the forest is for fuelwood.
In general, most
reasonably well seasoned tree species can be used for
the value of a tree for cooking and heating purposes is
roughly equivalent to its weight.
For a given volume, heavier
woods generally produce greater amounts of energy.
are no specifications or quality standards for fuelwood,
those established locally.
Charcoal is the
carbon residue of partially burned wood.
making charcoal, enough air is admitted to a kiln to burn
gases driven off by the burning wood, but not enough to
the residue.) The
process of making charcoal is complex and
requires technical information beyond the scope of this
Poles, Posts and Pilings
Poles, posts and
pilings are examples of round wood products.
Soundness, straightness, and a gradual taper from butt to
general requirements for good round wood products.
variable, depending upon specific uses and local
tree species do not decay or are termite-resistant; others
not. When poles and
posts are to be cut from trees subject to
decay or termites, treatment with chemical preservatives may
chemical preservatives are used, care must be exercised
to prevent harmful effects to both the environment and the
handlers of the products.
Chemicals should be chosen carefully
and warnings on the labels observed.
intended for sawing into boards, planks, or
other construction materials are known as saw timber.
species that grow to sufficient size are potentially usable.
General criteria for saw timber are:
Tree lengths up to 30 centimeters and larger
and at least
5 meters to the nearest branch of
Tree lengths that are reasonably straight
There are many
saw timer specifications and quality standards
in practice. The
development worker should start with local
customs and marketing opportunities, and then by working
community, improve standards and create new markets.
Wood that is
converted into paper products is known as pulpwood.
Not all tree species can be used for pulpwood, although the
yield of pulp is higher in the heavier woods.
Establishing a pulp
and paper mill requires guaranteed sources and quality of
Such projects generally do not provide a market for small
for other wood products may also exist, and a
development worker should be aware of these production and
wood products include bolts for handles,
mine timber, excelsior.
Are secondary and other by-products important?
gums and pharmaceutical materials can play a
role that is as important (if not more so) to local people
sawtimber, pulpwood, and other more marketable wood
Also, many fruits and nuts from forest plants provide
for both local consumption and sale.
The value of
these secondary and other by-products of forests
is often overlooked in small-scale forestry activities.
a development worker, in consultation with local people,
should include the demand for these products in planning.
When should trees for wood products be harvested?
the wood product, both biological factors and
economic considerations dictate when trees should be
a particular wood product.
biological standpoint, trees should not be cut until
they have grown at least to the minimum size required for
However, after attaining minimum size, the question
is what is the optimum or most advantageous size for
are guided by average growth rates of
forests in determining when to harvest trees for wood
As mentioned in Chapter 4 of this manual, trees should not
be allowed to grow beyond the point of maximum average
which is the age of maximum growth productivity.
this age the rotation age.
factors, in addition to average growth rates, must
often be considered by a development worker when determining
time to harvest trees for wood products.
These factors include:
Pathological factors, which affect the
growth of forests
terms of mortality and the amount of defect in
trees. As forests increase in age, they
subject to diseases such as heart-rotting
Entomological factors, which affect growth
of forests in
similar to pathological factors; also, entomological
direct attention toward forest composition,
structure, and vigor. Forests comprised
species, all of which are essentially the
are particularly susceptible to attack by
insects. In addition, as trees get
in vigor, they become more susceptible to
Silvicultural factors often influence
decisions as to
harvesting. Among the more important
factors are seed production
obtaining regeneration, competition from less
tree species, and maintenance of desirable
considerations also help determine when to harvest
trees for wood products.
For example, if the decision is based
solely on market factors, the time to harvest is when profit
maximized. Profit is
maximized when returns generated from harvesting
wood and selling a wood product minus costs incurred in
harvesting and processing the wood, are the greatest.
The age at
which profit is maximized is often less than the rotation
determined through biological considerations.
that one may need to consider in deciding when
to harvest trees for a particular wood product include:
Local harvesting techniques, which could
large tree lengths.
Available manpower, which could restrict the
extent of a
Existing market outlets, which dictate the
kind of wood
wood products and affect demand on particular
In general, the
time when trees should be harvested for wood
products is quite variable.
Rotations of 8 to 12 years, for
example, can be prescribed for fuelwood plantations in arid
regions; on the other hand, rotations approaching 100 years
often followed in more temperate forests set aside for saw
ages are unknown in many tropical forest
ecosystems, such as mangrove.
Can trees for wood products be harvested without
environmental consequences result when harvesting is
done without regard for other potential forest uses.
environmental effects can be achieved, however, through a
well-planned harvesting operation that is conducted
To plan an
environmentally sound small-scale harvesting
operation, in which wood products are obtained with minimum
to the environment, the development worker should recognize
forests may also serve other purposes such as soil
water production, grazing by domestic animals, wildlife
and recreational activities.
Soil Protection and Water Production
wood products may have to be curtailed or
modified when soils are in such a critical position that
require a forest cover to hold them in place.
In such situations,
the value of protection is usually greater than the use of
for wood products.
substantial erosion will develop as a result of
harvesting operations, subsequent costs of stabilizing the
could make harvesting trees for wood products excessively
Again, harvesting may have to be restricted to prevent
In many forest
ecosystems throughout the world, it has been
demonstrated that water production from upstream watersheds
affected by forestry practices.
In certain situations,
yields are increased after the removal of forest cover, with
increase attributed to a decrease in
increased water, in turn, can be beneficial to people living
areas of limited water supplies.
removal of forest cover can also increase peak
water flows in streams (especially following major storm
causing the flooding of valuable downstream lands.
these large volumes of water frequently accelerate erosion
and carry increased sediment loads.
Therefore, it is
important that harvesting operations be
carefully planned when soil protection and water production
are included in the project.
To obtain a proper balance:
Forego harvesting trees for wood products on
cover is necessary to hold soils in place, or
removal of the forest cover will result in
erosion. (Quite often, so-called
forests" are found on steep slopes or in such inaccessible
harvesting is very difficult.)
Take care to minimize detrimental impacts on
become necessary to harvest trees for wood
the above sites; this can be accomplished by
only when soils are relatively stable and not
erosion (either by wind action or by the
water); by using light equipment to pull
to a loading point; and by imposing practices
debris left after harvesting that minimize
disturbance to soil surface.
Harvest trees for wood products as well as
production by exercising good forestry practices.
Keep in mind that forests can be
managed to reduce
evapotranspiration, thereby increasing water yields;
this can be
accomplished by a reduction in forest densities,
from a forest cover type to an herbaceous
cover type (grasses, forbs, or shrubs)
or by a combination of both.
Do not remove all of the forest cover from
(particularly those on steep slopes with shallow
especially if downstream lands are subject to
flooding. Also, leave some
forest cover in areas subject
Grazing by Domestic Animals
As mentioned in
Chapter 6 of this manual, growing trees for
wood products and grazing by domestic animals can occur
in many forest ecosystems.
In these situations, it can be advantageous
to consider possible benefits from both uses.
Grazing may have
to be eliminated (or at least restricted)
during actual harvesting operations, particularly in
with unstable soils that are subject to erosion.
If not curtailed,
the combined impact of harvesting trees for wood products
and continued grazing by domestic animals can result in
Also, it may
become necessary to limit grazing during the
period immediately following a harvesting operation, if the
is to be reforested by planting seeds or seedlings soon
harvesting. Once the
trees have become well established and
beyond the reach of animals, controlled grazing can usually
use of forests compatible with growing trees
for wood products is wildlife production, whether or not for
As trees grow in size, more shade is cast onto the
altering plant species composition and density.
With changes in
ground-cover conditions, wildlife populations often change
trees for wood products with an eye toward
specific food and cover requirements for wildlife, desired
and non-game habitats can be maintained or created.
careful planning and execution of harvesting operations,
to good forestry practices, creates multiple edges and
increases diversity in forests which, in turn, can increase
the abundance of game and non-game animals.
depending upon their natural qualities, should
not be disturbed. As
long as harvesting operations are in accordance
with good forestry practices, however, recreational
will probably not be jeopardized.
Opening up roads and, if
necessary, installing bridges to remove wood products can
recreational opportunities but may also lead to increased
by subsistence farmers.
What alternatives exist?
who raise trees for wood products do so because
they expect returns in excess of expenditures of money,
effort necessary to grow the trees.
When returns are large, the
owner is usually interested in growing more trees and in
the forest in a productive condition.
However, if returns are
small (or if there are no returns at all), the owner may
abandon the commercial forestry enterprise altogether.
are often considered to be a principal operation
Therefore, the value of the trees is often
realized only when they are harvested.
For commercial projects
such as these, there is no real alternative.
But, as discussed in
Chapter 6 of this manual, the development worker and the
people must keep in mind that forests should be managed for
most beneficial combination of present and future uses,
both tangible uses (such as deriving wealth from the selling
wood products) and intangible uses (including soil
water production, and wildlife habitat).
VIII: BACKGROUND FOR PLANNING:
FUELWOOD MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS
A fuelwood plantation program implemented by the Government
India was spared the resentment and sabotage that afflicted
other programs because it took the local farmers into
educated the people about the need for leaving the
intact, appointed them "guardians of the forests"
them in various positions as part of the project.
Not only did
the local people leave the new plantations unmolested, but
guarded them from other poachers.
Why is fuelwood management important?
world, demands for fuelwood are increasing.
Many households and even whole communities in Third World
are entirely dependent upon wood for cooking and heating.
demands for fuelwood, both natural and man-made
forests are often subjected to environmentally unsound
practices, including complete deforestation.
continuous harvesting of fuelwood and other forest biomass
energy poses dangers of soil compaction, soil erosion, and
and organic material depletion.
Environmental consequences of
these dangers include dislodging of plant, animal, and human
populations, degradation of soils and site productivities,
reduction of genetic diversities of native species.
Over time, it is
likely that even more people will become
dependent on fuelwood for energy.
If properly managed, use of
woody materials as energy, has obvious advantages:
and renewable supply of energy; an even spread of
activities through reforestation of marginal lands; and the
generation of employment opportunities in rural areas which
invariably closer to forests.
The world stands
to gain from the use of fuelwood and other
forest biomass for energy, necessitating environmentally
What is the heat content of wood?
The heat content
of wood is proportional to the density (or
weight per unit of volume) of wood.
Laboratory tests have shown
that the heat content of a kilogram of wood, regardless of
tree species, is nearly 21,000 kilojoules.
A joule is a unit of
energy approximately equal to 0.24 of a small calorie, the
being the amount of heat required at a pressure of one
to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree
information outlined in the diagram on the following
page, the heat content of a cubic meter of wood can be
How are energy input and output relationships used in
energy for human use also requires an energy
input, the latter being a human effort or the use of other
In an energy balance calculation, this energy input should
subtracted from the total energy to determine the energy
through wood utilization.
ecosystems require energy input only at the time
of fuelwood harvesting and during its transportation to the
of use. Other
forest ecosystems require a continuous energy input
from the beginning to the end of a rotation; additional
also needed in harvesting, transporting, and (if necessary)
To plan an
fuelwood management program,
and a program that
produces a net energy
gain, a development worker
and the local people
should recognize the relative
advantages and disadvantages
fuelwood management in
different kinds of forests.
A Natural Forest
Natural forests usually
have a mixture of native
tree species and ages over
a relatively large area.
In terms of producing
woody materials for
energy, these forests have
Humans need invest no energy in the
establishment of the
since the forest regenerates itself naturally.
Less energy is usually needed to maintain
the forest in
acceptable growing condition.
Net energy production in these forests can
particularly in young stands.
natural forests of
a multiple tree species
are well known, and include
the facts that:
-- Little information is
available to describe
overall growth rates.
-- Forest management is
relatively complex, and
techniques are only partially
-- Harvesting wood for
wood products, including
fuelwood, is frequently
-- Reproduction of shade-intolerant
trees, if desired,
can present a
A major energy
investment from human sources occurs at the
end of a rotation, primarily for harvesting, transporting,
processing the crop.
usually consist of an age sequence of one-aged
blocks of a single tree species, often planted with uniform
spacing. As a source
of fuelwood and biomass for energy, these
forests seem to be an attractive proposition because:
Management can be prescribed relatively
precisely and be
by skilled workers.
Growth over a rotation can be forecasted
and the rotation length can be adjusted to
or optimum production to meet specified
Net energy production is relatively large
forests in many situations).
Management and utilization can be mechanized
Management of man-made forests, particularly
zones, is founded on a long history of
research. There is a growing
body of information on
of arid forest lands and tropical rain
the use of man-made forests as a source of
energy arise from the following concerns.
They can present a greater risk of fire,
disease, and loss of soil
Aesthetic, wildlife, and recreational values
Quite often, there is a heavy investment of
and energy in establishment and maintenance.
Once planted, options for alternative land
uses are restricted.
investment of energy from human sources is required
for rotation, and to harvest, transport, and process the
As discussed in
Chapter 9 of this manual, growing of trees in
conjunction with production of agricultural crops and, at
with grazing by domestic livestock is called
grown within many agro-forestry systems can be utilized as
Advantages of agro-forestry in fuelwood management are:
Tree species are either self-regenerating or
Maintenance and protection costs are usually
Energy output is profitable at the level of
even for the
No major capital investments are needed.
Transportation costs are minimal.
There are also
Planting trees in conjunction with agricultural
the yield and quality of both crops, in some
Soil fertility may be reduced, particularly
Which trees should be grown?
As mentioned in
Chapter 4 of this manual, a development
worker may not have a choice in the tree species which will
grown, particularly in natural forests.
When a selection can be
made, however, there are desirable characteristics that
stressed for choosing tree species to grow for
the question of what specific tree species should be grown
best be answered on a local basis.
Some desirable characteristics
Tree species with relatively high wood
high weights per unit volume) and energy
should be favored whenever possible.
A relatively short rotation period is often
management programs -- when this is so,
rapidly growing tree species (especially in
establishment and initial growth stages) should be
Production of wood for energy is sometimes a
species of prosopis, for example, branches are
for firewood although the trees are used to
mentioned in Chapter 4 of this manual, if a tree
species is to be introduced, in this case for fuelwood, it
important to test its suitability before making a commitment
large scale planting.
How does fuelwood management affect the environment?
Effects on the
environment from harvesting fuelwood (specifically,
a total exploitation of forests for energy purposes) are
essentially the same as those resulting from a total forest
for saw timber, pulpwood, or other wood products.
is a brief discussion of some of the more important
impacts which might be expected when natural and man-made
are intensively harvested for fuel, and proper management is
Removal of trees
and dead organic materials for fuel also
removes nutrients from a site, withdraws food from soil
upon which the nutrient cycle depends, and reduces the
productivity of soils.
Other consequences may be increased soil
compaction, loss of soil porosity, an increase in erosion,
and nutrient loss, and a reduction (or even complete
of natural regeneration.
Intensive gathering of fuelwood
and other forest biomass for cooking and heating may result
loss of nutrient capital and, therefore, a loss of
possible, a balance should be achieved between
a demand for fuelwood and the need to maintain site
Removal of dead
organic materials from a forest floor (such
as residues from harvesting other wood products) is often a
in areas of high fuelwood use and may result in much harsher
climates near the ground.
Removal of these materials can increase
solar radiation and re-radiation, cause extreme
result in a drier soil surface, and reduce the subsequent
It should be
mentioned, however, that by not removing at
least some of the large amounts of residues of harvesting
these materials will become fuels for wildfires.
controlled removal and use of residues for energy can have
forest cover by intensively harvesting fuelwood
can result in destruction of habitats for certain wildlife
causing many of these species to migrate to other areas.
Damage is greater where forests are cleared, although even
selective cutting is practiced, wildlife species are
selective, as well as clearcut harvesting for wood
products often results in accumulations of residues that may
discourage regeneration and make forest management for high
wood products more difficult.
Regeneration of forests, both
naturally and artificially, can be facilitated by the
these residues for energy use.
residues of harvesting operations can improve
local acceptance of cut areas, since regeneration occurs
and use of forests for many other purposes is established
quickly after cutting.
Clearcut areas may be marginally more
acceptable if residues are removed than otherwise.
The quality of
regeneration may be improved by removal of
unmerchantable, small, and otherwise defective trees for
use, provided that suitable seed sources are available and
When weeding and
thinning are practiced to improve the quality
and the condition for growth of the remaining trees, use of
cut trees for energy is often a custom.
In general, finding a use
for weedings and thinnings can make this practice more
In many Third
World countries, man-made forests that are
maintained for continued fuelwood production are probably
Many of the environmental impacts that have already been
discussed with respect to the exploitation of natural
applicable to short rotations of man-made forests, but often
greater intensity (such as 10 to 20 years).
tree crops, such as those undertaken in fuelwood
management, provide a quickly recurring harvest of biomass
devoid of aesthetic and organic benefits associated with
forests. However, by
satisfying urgent needs for fuelwood, manmade
forests can furnish a safety valve against local pressures
exploit natural forests in energy-short societies.
Can fuelwood management be integrated with other forestry
It is entirely
possible, and in many instances quite appropriate,
to integrate fuelwood management with other forestry
The development worker should encourage such an integration
However, in encouraging integration, it
is important to consider the following points.
Identify, disseminate, and apply existing
management and use of forests (both natural and man-made)
sustained and maximum energy yields, with
consideration given to environmental effects, such as
of soil erosion in the tropics and control of
desertification in arid and semi-arid zones.
Take into account the most important social
including the problem of increasing distances
required to secure
Develop new silvicultural and forest
energy yields within the framework of
multiple-use. The most promising
options appear to be
rotation forestry, whole tree utilization, growing
forests (in which renewal of a newly cutover
primarily on vegetative reproduction like
and intermixing of so-called high energy
as sugar cane) with tree species.
Encourage local (particularly rural)
forest management practices and technologies.
There is an
indispensable need to bridge the gap between
insight and practice. Social and
understanding is a key element.
Coupled with environmental
appreciation of local practices can
implementation of effective forest management
IX: BACKGROUND FOR PLANNING:
With problems of deforestation in mind, and with an
of Panama's needs for fuelwood and new agricultural lands,
Agency for International Development (AID) of the United
mounted a carefully planned and coordinated program of
forest resources, and agriculture.
program has been considered one of AID's most successful
development of projects, as it relates directly to
the needs of local people.
What is agro-forestry?
ecosystems of the world, and particularly the
Third World, are being subjected to ever increasing pressure
subsistence farmers and herders.
Agro-forestry offers a means of
bringing the activities of rural people into greater harmony
the forest environment by developing a complementary
between trees and agricultural crops.
the integration of forestry and agriculture.
It combines growing trees with production of agricultural
and, in some agro-forestry systems, grazing by domestic
simultaneously or sequentially on the same unit of
objective of agro-forestry is to create sustainable land
strategies which increase the overall yields of the land,
which are also compatible with the environment and local
applied, agro-forestry is a system that is both
productive and environmentally sound and it has the
only to increase food, fuel, and income for farmers or
marginal lands, but also to help stop destruction of the
Is there a general agro-forestry system?
There is no
universal agro-forestry system. Each
conditions found in a particular forest ecosystem require a
Often, more than one agro-forestry
system can be applied to any single set of conditions.
Some of the many
agro-forestry systems are listed below:
Agri-silviculture systems -- the management
of land for
production of agricultural crops and forest products.
Silvo-pastoral systems -- the management of
production of wood, as well as for raising domestic
Agro-silvo-pastoral systems -- the
management of land
production of agricultural crops, forest products,
Multi-purpose forest tree production systems
regeneration and management of forest
tree species for
leaves, and quite often, fruits that are suitable
agro-forestry has been practiced by forest dwellers
for thousands of years.
It is only recently that scientific
attention has been focused on these practices.
This has occurred
because forest ecosystems are being heavily impacted by ever
increasing populations and because of a realization that
agricultural methods are usually inappropriate.
agro-forestry landscape would be dominated by
trees. Trees would
be in woodlots, in the middle of agricultural
plots, dotted on pastures, or in rows on the perimeters of
to serve as fences and wind-breaks.
With such a system, a farmer
could produce his energy needs, building and fencing
well as improving the soil fertility, fodder, and food
Wildlife would be sustained to supply extra protein.
for market might even be produced.
Below are some case examples of agro-forestry systems:
-- In Indonesia, the
state forest corporation has a program
forests, not only as providers of wood
and protectors of
the environment, but as sources of
food, medicinal herbs,
resin, and silk. This system
growing rice between young tree plants; it
has more than
doubled paddy production within two years.
-- Bangladesh has a
families on 600
hectares to grow
-- In the highlands
grazed on Kikuyu
Alder roots fix
in the soil which
-- It was found in
when grown under
increased as much
percent and were
-- Farmers in
Central America imitate the structure and
tropical forests by planting a variety of
different growth habits. Plots as small
contain a dozen or more species, each
with a different
form: coconut or papaya with a lower
layer of citrus,
a shrub layer of coffee or cacao, tall
and low annuals
such as corn and beans, and finally a
cover of squash.
-- New Zealand sheep
ranchers have found that their animals
are able to
maintain their body temperatures with less
energy loss in
the modified climate of pastures in open
The combined production of timber and
sheep provides a
greater net profit than does either
may be social, economic, and physical constraints
on the proper development of a forest ecosystem, with
imagination and careful study, the potential benefits of
can be great.
What are the environmental benefits of agro-forestry
environmental benefits of many agro-forestry
Recycling of nutrients by trees when their
fruit, and branches fall to the ground and
decompose. This addition of
biomass also provides mulch
reduce tillage and lower evaporation rates.
Tapping of moisture and nutrients by trees
at depths not
agricultural crops or pasture plants.
The ability of trees to more efficiently
nutrients from soil through the
invades a tree
ability to function).
can also be of
Most legumes and
of some other
the air in a
Protection against erosion
also improve soil permeability by favoring the
stable aggregates and by penetrating tight
some types of hardpans.
Improvement in the quantity and diversity of
a greater variety of ecological niches.
harmful insects and rodents are
The provision of support for some types of
pepper, for example).
An increase in diversity and spatial arrangement
species which can sometimes deter insect
Manipulation of light by pruning tree crowns
fruiting of associated crops and of the
Modification of a microclimate favorable to
extremes, raising humidity, lowering wind
and reducing rainfall energies.
An approximation of natural ecological
systems that more
use vertical space and capture solar energy
What are the social and economic benefits of agro-forests?
A major problem
facing subsistence farmers and herders in
many Third World countries is obtaining a steady supply of
income throughout the year, as agriculture only produces at
Conventional forestry practices are
usually unattractive to farmers because of problems of cash
and the long investment period.
Agro-forestry offers opportunities
for subsistence farmers and herders to diversify production
of wood and non-wood products to maintain regular employment
income during periods between harvests of agricultural
considerable scope in designing agro-forestry systems
with high productivity by utilizing plant and/or animal
species most acceptable to local people.
Specific social and
economic benefits include:
Economic insurance provided by the store of
Lessening of the danger of catastrophic
losses that can
monocultures which are dependent upon the
climate, markets, pest outbreaks, and the
of fertilizer, machine parts and
Direct economic benefits of fuelwood, fence
sawlogs, fruits, fodder, honey, medicinal products,
forest products, without having to
buy them from other sources.
The presence of trees which usually reduces
Use of trees to mark property boundaries,
to serve as
shelterbelts (see Chapter 10 of this manual)
or as a
guard against land usurpation.
Increased opportunity to move from
destructive land uses
profits over the short term to environmentally
practices with long-term benefits without
Early reduction of the economic investment
by the proceeds of thinning and tree
manipulation to produce fodder, fence posts, and
What problems might arise in developing agro-forestry
An aim of a
small-scale agro-forestry project is to develop a
desirable replacement that at least matches the productivity
any existing or alternative system.
There are some potential
disadvantages that should be considered in planning an
project for a specific area.
Shading by tree crowns can lower the yields
associated agricultural crops beneath the trees.
Competition between trees and associated
and water can reduce production of either or
Competition for space both below and above
Tree harvesting can cause mechanical damage
The presence of trees can make mechanization
The moisture content of the air layer at the
associated agricultural crops may be increased and
and bacterial diseases.
Trees take up and store nutrients over long
There can be a loss of nutrients from site
Trees retain part of the precipitation in
which can be
important in dry areas of light rains.
stemflow can adversely redistribute precipitation
The environment of an agro-forestry system
of animal pests.
Social and Economic Considerations
In some cases, economic yields of
can be lower
than for monocultures, even though the long
environmental advantage may be great.
In other cases, the combined value of trees
agricultural crops may be eventually higher
than that of
a monoculture. Where population
are high in
relation to land resources, survival often
agricultural crop cycles. There may be
by the rural poor to planting and managing
products can only be realized over much
Agro-forestry involves complex associations
amenable to experimentation and analyses
monocultures. This problem is
of trained personnel for improving existing
developing new systems.
There is generally a lack of knowledge of
agro-forestry on the part of decision makers.
they may be
reluctant to release funds for
adequate experience, there is
a danger of
creating resentment at both the rural and
making levels from unsuccesful projects based
insufficient information. The
development of projects
reports of "miracle trees" is an example.
What are the elements in planning environmentally sound agro-forestry
projects can vary in complexity from simple
schemes to improve the practice of shifting cultivation to
managed intercropping systems.
An ultimate goal of agro-forestry
projects, however, is the conservation of the forest
ecosystem while satisfying the needs of local farmers for
type of agro-forestry project will require:
Surveys of needs, customs, and abilities of
these needs might also include the possibilities
developing cottage industries.
Study of both existing and potential markets
Examination of constraints of economics,
organization of local community working groups.
Decisions on which agro-forestry systems
would be most
for local community needs, the ecological
Selection of management techniques,
harvesting schedules, to maximize yields of both
Provisions for monitoring production and
changes in soil
this information should be used as feedback
intercropping (agro-forestry systems designed for a mixture
of trees and farm crops), careful consideration must be
to the following:
Optimum mixtures and
patterns of trees
and farm crops, which maximize
given to possible
complementary and conflicting
Foliage characteristics and leaf fall of the
their influence on competition
energy and nutrients.
Shade tolerance of agricultural species and
forest species on energy levels at the
It is important
to keep in mind that a agro-forestry project
depends not only on the quantity and quality of joint
that may be produced, but also largely upon the
strategies built into the project.
BACKGROUND FOR PLANNING:
SHELTERBELT AND WIND-BREAK PLANTINGS
In the 1970's when the drought began in Mauritania, nomads
on the green dunes of Nouakchott.
They naturally chopped down the
surrounding Euphorbia bushes and Mesquite trees.
As the number of
people increased, the remaining vegetation was
trees, and as the drought became worse, the dunes became
and the sands began to shift.
In response to this situation,
a PVO funded a project to replant indigenous Euphorbia
bushes and Mesquite trees as wind-breaks.
These plant species
survived remarkably well, considering the shortage of
What are shelterbelts and wind-breaks?
barriers of live vegetation, usually trees
and shrubs, planted in one or more rows at right angles to
direction of prevailing wind,.
Their primary purpose is to reduce
the velocity of winds across agricultural crops and pastures
around buildings and livestock enclosures.
Shelterbelts have been used successfully in
climates since the middle of the 19th century.
They have been
effective in improving the microclimate, reducing wind
increasing crop and livestock yields, reducing heating
providing fodder, fuelwood, and other wood products.
It has also
been demonstrated that shelterbelts can be even more
under the harsher conditions of arid lands.
On these lands, the
value of thrifty tree species may be even higher than that
other products of land use.
A distinction is
often made between shelterbelts and wind-breaks,
but there is no consistent agreement on differences in the
terms. The term
shelterbelt is most often used to describe wind
barriers around agricultural fields and pastures, while the
wind-breaks is commonly used to describe wind barriers
buildings, gardens, and orchards.
Both shelterbelts and wind-breaks
serve the same purpose and the terms are often used
as they are in this manual.
Planning a shelterbelt operation requires a
worker to consult with local inhabitants to determine goals
establishment and management, and to provide a foundation
How do shelterbelts function?
When wind approaches
a shelterbelt, its velocity is moderated
on both sides of the shelter.
When the shelterbelt is dense and
not very permeable to wind, most of the flow is deflected
Pressure on the down-wind side is reduced, causing
which greatly reduces velocity, but only for a relatively
distance down-wind of the shelter.
If a shelter is
more permeable to wind, the wind flow is
divided -- part of the flow is deflected upward (as with the
permeable belt) and part penetrates through the belt.
usually less turbulence and the reduction in velocity is
greater distance down-mind.
permeable and impermeable shelterbelts, the effect
on wind velocity is related to the height (H) of the tallest
in the belt and is expressed in multiples of this
the effect is felt at distances of 20H to 40H.
Be permeable with a vertical crown density
of about 50
percent, but no greater than 80 percent.
Have the greatest height possible for tree
Have a suitable width and structure.
How should shelterbelts be structured?
most often planned so that they will develop
a triangular cross section, with the highest trees in the
flanked by shorter trees and shrubs on the edges.
cross sections are quite adequate for shelterbelts of two
to four rows, provided that at least two of the rows have
down to the ground.
A decision on
how wide a shelterbelt should be depends upon
the amount of land which can be economically devoted to
and the minimum number of the rows required to maintain the
Actually, narrow shelterbelts of moderate
density are just as effective as wide belts.
five rows are generally efficient in both
humid and dry climates, and they are not difficult to
However, in considering economic worth, account must be
multiple-uses of the shelterbelt.
For example, wood
products, shelter for animals and bees, food and cover for
and fodder for livestock may be important considerations in
addition to wind protection.
For these considerations, shelterbelts
of more than five rows may be desirable.
are risky since holes may develop and funnel the winds.
rows depends in part upon the tree and shrub
species planted and the type of management to be followed
plants mature. In
general, seedlings are planted close together
to obtain early closure.
As the plants mature, every other one is
removed. Final spacing within rows should be from 1 to 1.5
for shrubs and 2 to 3 meters for trees.
Spacing between rows
should range from 3 to 4 meters to allow for subsequent
What patterns should be
systems largely depends
upon the velocities and
directions of local winds.
If there are definite prevailing
winds, a series of
should be established,
preferably at right angles
but no less than 45 degrees
to the direction of
the winds. More
winds blow from various
directions which would require a checkerboard pattern.
cases, dense shelterbelts may be planted across the major
directions and less dense belts planted across minor
areas, shelterbelts should be located mainly
along irrigation channels.
In rolling topography, shelterbelts
are more effective if planted along ridgetops.
compromise is sometimes necessary to take into account both
direction of winds and the cultural and physical
of the area.
livestock, a compact shelterbelt in a U, V, X
or square configuration can be used.
Shelterbelts around buildings
are often planted in L-shaped pattern across the prevailing
Shelterbelt Planting in an L-shaped Pattern
should be planted a suitable distance from
buildings to prevent excessive snow accumulation due to
on the leeward side of the shelter in cold climates.
In the case
of permeable shelterbelts, snow accumulations extend from
10H to 25H.
In hot and dry
climates, dense shelterbelts placed too close
to buildings may result in oppressive heat.
These belts should be
permeable and located at least 30 to 45 meters (but no
than 90 to 120 meters) from the buildings.
What spacing should be used between shelterbelts?
spacing of shelterbelts depends upon site factors,
climatic patterns, and growth rates of the tree and shurb
shelterbelts should be spaced at about 20
times the height of the tallest trees, particularly across
major wind direction.
If a checkerboard pattern is used, shelterbelts
across minor wind directions may be spaced up to 60 times
the height. Since
height growth of arid land species is not great
(only 10 to 15 meters under irrigation), the best that one
plan for in those areas is an average of 200 to 300 meters
What characteristics should the plant species have?
introduced three and shurb species which have
proven their adaptability to the soils and climate of the
should be used in shelterbelt plantings.
In addition to the
characteristics listed in Chapter 5 of this manual, plants
should have certain other characteristics, including:
Resistance to the force of winds.
Strong tap roots.
(Lateral rooted tree and shurb
compete with fields and pastures they are
Dense, uniform crowns, thrifty growth,
foliage, and adequate height.
Resistance to disease, and insects, and cold
Value for wood or other products (such as
Although use of
a single tree or shrub species simplifies
management, it is not often that one plant will have all of
Often, two or more species will be required to
develop a shelterbelt that will provide adequate
example, the low growth form of acacia makes it useful for
in the outer rows of shelterbelts in dry climates; the inner
rows may consist of tamarisk, casvania, and eucalyptus.
plant species, particularly those that sprout after cutting
as eucalyptus), can sometimes be managed to provide full
shelter by alternately cutting the outer rows of trees and
the cut trees to complete the shelter.
How are shelterbelts established?
The first step
planning a shelterbelt
system involves identification
of the need for the
technique by local farmers.
identification, a commitment
to undertake such
a project should be accompanied
by training and formation of a community organization.
Cooperative efforts are essential to set goals, purchase or
planting stock, obtain equipment, organize work crews, and
carry out management objectives.
include site preparation,
careful handling of planting
stock from the nursery
to the planting site,
protection against fire
and grazing animals, and
cultivation after planting
at least several times
each season. Source
seed is, of course, equally
important in the growing of planting stock for any locality.
Terracing and contour planting may be necessary in some
Often, a soil-improving crop of legumes may be grown between
rows of plantings in the belt for the first few years to
growth of the belt.
In dry climates,
after planting is
necessary. The soil
should be well prepared
and a permanent source of
water should be assured.
A water transportation and
application system must be
planned. The number
waterings and the amount
of water applied depends
upon climate, species, and soil.
For example, in a sandy loam
area receiving 150 to 200 millimeters of rainfall with a dry
season of 8 months, about 6 applications of 10 liters for
seedling is probably sufficient to assure survival.
In both dry
and humid climates, survival of 90 or 95 percent is
necessary for shelterbelts.
At least two
must be planned during the first
few years following establishment,
and at least one cultivation must
be made during the following two
or three years.
Heavier soil will
require more intensive cultivation.
Root pruning of some
species which have spreading root
systems, such as eucalyptus, must
also be planned.
These roots can
grow into adjacent fields and compete with crops.
How should shelterbelts be managed?
shelterbelts can yield products from thinnings,
sanitation cuts, prunings, and rotational cuts without
greatly reducing the barrier effects.
Indeed, cuttings are often
necessary to maintain the structure and vitality of the
For example, to stimulate height growth and the formation
of straight stems, pruning of the lower branches early in
development of the belt is advisable.
Coppicing trees will require
the greatest amount of pruning.
To stimulate diameter
growth, thinning can be required.
For some tree species, thinning
could be started during the fourth or fifth year.
and thinnings will occasionally be necessary during the life
the shelterbelt to remove dead, diseased, or insect-infested
will provide the greatest quantity of wood
successive cutting can be dome so that at least
half of the rows are left standing.
Therefore, half of a five-row
shelterbelt can be cut; meanwhile, the other half should
the necessary protection until the regrowth of the first cut
reaches the desired density.
It should be planned that the first
cut is done on the down-wind side at about half the normal
age. Starting with
the second cut, a normal period of
rotation could be followed.
Replanting, of course, follows each
cut. In the case of
two-row shelterbelts, one row is cut and the
second is left standing.
cycle for shelterbelts depends upon the growth
rate of the trees and shrubs.
However, a rough estimate for tree
species used for wood products is 15 to 20 years (roughly
as the rotation cycle).
What are the environmental effects of shelterbelts?
The effects of
shelterbelts are almost without exception
beneficial to the environment.
Major effects include:
Lessened evaporation and transpiration,
for plant use, and reduced water stress.
Increased snow catch in cold climates and
Decreased wind damage to plants and animals.
Checked wind erosion and lessened sand
movement and its
Controlled air temperature by leveling out
Provision of organic material for soil
Provision of an aesthetic value in areas
where trees are
In arid regions,
where water is limited and where shelterbelts
must be watered, favorable environmental effects must be
carefully weighed against the value of water.
effects can also occur if the trees harbor birds, insects or
disease organisms which are harmful to the crops.
relationship (in which two dissimilar organisms live
close association) between diseases of specific crops to be
and the alternate hosts of the diseases should be studied
shelterbelt species are selected.
CHAPTER XI: BACKGROUND FOR
REFORESTATION AND AFFORESTATION PROJECTS
To improve the natural forest, the Government of Malaysia
conducted a cooperative tree-planting program with local
As local people were hired to do the planting, they were
quite protective of the plantations.
As a result, poaching and
grazing damage have been minimal.
What is meant by reforestation and afforestation?
reforestation is normally used when an area that
once supported forests is to be reforested; this includes
such as abandoned agricultural lands, bush lands, or areas
forested but poorly stocked or stocked with inferior species
should be replaced with more productive species.
The term afforestation
is generally applied to projects whose goal is to plant
areas previously devoid of trees.
Most often, the term is used
for forestry projects in arid regions.
differences between the two terms are slight and
need not be belabored.
The term reforestation will be used in
this manual to mean planting treeless areas, changing the
of existing forests, or converting from other land uses to
environmentally sound forest production.
When is it important to plan reforestation projects?
of the Third World countries, native forests
have been greatly depleted, and in many cases, completely
Plans for the reforestation of these areas cannot be made
too soon. Forests
are essential to the quality of life and, in
most cases, to life itself and the life support system.
As the number of
people living in these areas increases, the
quality of the land on which they must live simultaneously
Unless solutions are implemented, the impact will be felt
not only locally but globally.
The consequences of not initiating
effective solutions immediately are accelerated soil loss
deterioration, environmental degradation, and further
of the world population.
As mentioned in
Chapter 3 of this manual, if undisturbed for
a long time, forest ecosystems will evolve through successional
steps into a climax type.
Once established, no other tree species
can naturally invade and replace the climax, except if the
subjected to some external form of disturbance.
is one of the basic concepts of ecology.
Practical implications of forest succession
in tree planting
means that climax tree species cannot be grown successfully
severely degraded sites; conversely, pioneer species, if
on good sites, will eventually give way to climax
principle is especially important in planning reforestation
depleted sites. The
original vegetative cover of these sites has
been stripped and the topsoil is gone.
To attempt to reforest
with climax types may be difficult or impossible even though
land may once have supported magnificent forests.
be so bad that the area will only support shrubs and other
Reforestation might require planning a series of
successional vegetative stages to arrive at a desired forest
What environmental factors are important?
In planning a
reforestation project, forest successions
should be studied by a development worker -- this includes
of historical records and interviews with local
and climatic factors prevailing in the area can also be very
important. Some that
should be considered are:
Soils -- texture, structure, depth, water
fertility as they may affect plant species
Precipitation -- amount and distribution
how they may affect planting and survival.
Temperature -- seasonal fluctuations and
transport, storage, and planting of seedlings.
Site factors -- aspect, slope, topography,
as they may
affect plant species selection.
Wind -- direction, velocity, and dryness as
survival in certain areas.
All factors that
influence the water balance are critical for
survival and growth of every plant.
This is particularly true in
Attention should be given to lower valleys and
flats that receive runoff and soil materials from higher up,
these sites may receive water several times the natural
Therefore, these areas may have the potential for growing
value species than have the upland sites of the area to be
man and his animals usually have the greatest
impact on a forest ecosystem and can be severe constraints
Questions to ask in planning are:
Is fire now
being used in agriculture or for range improvement?
lands held in common and how heavy is land use?
What are the
foraging habits of grazing animals (browsers, bark eaters,
grazers)? Is it
customary for the area to be reforested to support
herds of domestic livestock with a variety of food
Answers to these
and other questions may require control of
both human and animal activity, enforcement of rules
access to the area to be reforested, and development of a
What tree species should be selected?
In addition to
the general criteria listed in Chapter 5 of
this manual, the choice of tree species to be planted should
made on the basis of adaptability to the local environment,
ability to meet the needs of local inhabitants.
native species growing in the area and conforming
to local needs and traditions are the safest choice for
However, there may be no native trees, or the native
species may not produce the products desired in some
such instances, the possibilities of introducing tree
characteristics superior to those of native species should
introduced species should be used with a great
deal of caution until their performance has been
trials in the area.
Transfer of either native or introduced
species from one locality to another should be governed
by similarity of climate and soil in the new area within the
natural range of the species.
is often used as justification for reforestation
this is a worthy objective, but projects
can fail unless they also yield other products of direct
value to the local inhabitants.
Careful thought must be given by
a development worker to the properties of the wood and the
characteristics of the tree species which make them valuable
When trees are
grown for lumber, qualities such as
straightness, strength, and workability are desirable.
poles require durability in addition to strength and
Fuelwood species should have a high caloric value and low
content, and produce large volumes of wood.
Trees with dense wood
make the best charcoal.
Deciduous trees without spines and with
leaves high in nutrients (such as many legumes) make good
species. If gum extraction
is one potential use of the forest,
high yield species and varieties will, of course, be
cases, it is possible to select trees which will
serve several purposes, such as tall trees with flowers
attract bees, or good charcoal producing shrubs bearing
oils or leaves for fodder.
More often, two or more species will
be necessary to provide the products desired and to take
of differences in planting sites within the area to be
What should be considered in obtaining planting stock?
In undertaking a
small -scale reforestation project, it is
safest to obtain seedlings from a permanent nursery in the
However, if the nursery is too far from the planting site or
none exists, establishment of a small temporary nursery may
The closer the nursery is to the planting site,
Elaborate site preparation for such a nursery is not
required and temporary buildings as shelter will
for a dependable supply of water (preferably a gravity
at the nursery should have training. At
minimum, this should include a permanently employed overseer
several assistants if only on a temporary basis.
Unless it is
planned to use bare root stock for reforestation,
the temporary nursery site need not be located on fertile
soils. Instead, the
seedlings can be grown in containers filled
with soil. There are
any number of containers which can be used.
These range from unfired, hand made clay pots to
styrofoam trays and individual containers made of peat (both
which are produced commercially).
Bag or tube containers made of
inexpensive plastic film and filled with soil are very
many parts of the world.
Growing seedlings in containers is labor
intensive, but great efficiency may not be an important
for small scale operations.
Plastic fiIm and
other types of containers
minimize damage to the
seedling and drying out of
the root system; they also
do not require temporary
storage facilities at the
planting site as do bare
root stock. However,
labor of transporting containerized
the planting site can be
great. If flexible
are used, a source
of cohesive (but not
heavy), soil must be used.
Where should seeds be obtained?
If it is
necessary to establish a small nursery, the origin
of seed for the tree species to be planted is of utmost
A source of high quality seeds must be found early in the
Failures have often occurred by using seed from
inferior trees or from trees which grow in unsuitable
The following principles should be considered:
Seed collection should be based on the
climate of the collection zone and the
If native species are to be used, collection
local seeds of known origin. Generally,
choice should be seed trees within about 200
distance and within 500 meters elevation of
In the case of introduced tree species,
seeds should be
under environmental conditions as similar as
those of the area to be reforested. It
when seeds are ordered from abroad to consider
geographic location of the source. For
seeds of eucalyptus from one province in
may be more resistant to salinity than those
Seeds should not be collected from each tree
in a forest
from carefully selected, superior trees
distinguished by such qualities as
straightness, fast growth, and branching habit.
require provisions for training local people in
Once the seeds are collected, provision must be
made for extracting, cleaning, and drying.
Most tree species do
not produce seeds each year but have abundant seed years 2
years apart. For
that reason, plans should include storage
facilities. Seeds of
some species may require refrigeration.
Other species can be stored at room temperatures for
periods without losing viability.
What is necessary in planning site preparation?
will probably have to be considered in
humid climates, preparation is usually minimal,
particularly on abandoned agricultural lands.
On brush lands, the
shrub species present must either be removed or subdued by
and/or burning until the newly planted seedlings can become
there are undesirable tree species, girdling
or cutting may have to precede planting.
In dry climates,
site preparation can be more complicated.
It may be necessary to consider massive treatments (such as
plowing or the construction of terraces) to hold the limited
Other less intense land treatments could
include furrows, trenches, pits, or berms constructed along
In very dry areas, it may be necessary to plan water
harvesting systems in which runoff from a larger catchment
diverted onto a smaller area where trees are planted.
eroded land that is heavily gullied, whether in
humid or in dry climates, extensive site preparation may
be considered. Soil
conservation structures (including gully
plugs, rock dams, or temporary brush dams) may have to be
In severe cases, preparation of these sites may have to
planting by several years.
Use of grasses
to help stabilize the site until trees become
established may be necessary.
Reforestation of these lands may
require careful planning from aerial photos, if available,
to locate suitable points for control structures.
should then be designed to maintain the stability of the
until the trees can take over.
In humid climates, the time required
may only be one or two growing seasons; in dry climates the
time may extend up to a decade.
CHAPTER XII: OTHER
Trees have been replanted on the Algerian slopes by a PVO in
attempt to stop the incursion of the Sahara.
engaged in the project were furnished seedlings, and given
and food. They were
also educated about the need for reforestation
and involved in all stages of planting, terracing, and road
Algeria is an oil exporting country, the need for
fuelwood is not as acute as in other places -- as a result,
100 million trees planted, about 80% survived.
Where local farmers
were involved, they protected the new plantations, and the
incidence of poaching was negligible.
In areas where local involvement
was slighted, hardly any trace of the project remains.
Are small-scale forestry projects not discussed important?
this manual cannot mention the full range of
small-scale forestry projects that could be considered for a
examples of some of the more common projects
have been discussed.
It is important that development workers and
others interested in planning, implementation, or management
these projects thoroughly explore all possibilities for
using a particular forest ecosystem in the most beneficial
the small-scale forestry project to be undertaken,
it is necessary to keep in mind the need to plan
sound projects that are responsive to the needs and well
being of local people.
Is additional information available?
Yes -- depending
upon the specific project being considered
and the particular forest ecosystem involved, additional
information may be available to assist development workers
planning environmentally sound small-scale projects.
To this end,
the bibliography at the end of this manual could provide
information for the initial stages of a planning process.
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
short-form version of the CILSS/Club du Sahel
Ecologic Guidelines has been developed to meet the needs of development
workers at the community level.
The original version is
available at cost from the CODEL Office, Environment and
Program. This paper
is a response prepared by Fred R. Weber
as a result of discussions with PVOs at CODEL workshops on
Environment and Development.
In its basic
form, the guidelines presented will permit
analysis of proposed activities and a design that will
negative impacts. It
is designed for small-scale projects under
$250, 000. The
Mini-Guidelines is being circulated to PVOs to
invite reaction and response.
It is hoped agencies will try out
the Mini-Guidelines in the field and report back on the
Responses should be addressed to Mini-Guidelines,
and Development Program, CODEL, 79 Madison Avenue, New York,
New York 10016. All
communications will be forwarded to Fred
approach is the same as for the complete
CILSS/Club du Sahel Ecologic Guidelines.
Methods and procedure,
however, have been condensed in a form that is less time
and can be carried out by project design personnel not
trained or experienced in environmental analysis.
Introduction to the Guidelines
Begin with any
project in the community development area:
wells construction, school gardens, poultry raising, village
access roads, and so forth.
Any community activity will, in
one form or another, affect the environment somehow.
if "environment" is regarded in its broadest form,
not only the
physical aspects are affected but also health, economics,
and cultural components.
The objective of
this exercise is to try to predict as far as
possible, the various impacts the proposed activity will
both negative and positive terms.
A project normally is designed
with specific results in mind.
An attempt is made to provide
well-defined, "targeted" inputs to bring about
to the people in the field.
What is less clear is the nature and
extent of incidental consequences these activities might
about that are less desirable, in fact often adverse or
In reality, more
often than not, the good will have to be
taken with some bad.
Choices often involve trade-offs.
then consists of developing a system where these trade-offs
are as favorable as
possible in terms of the people
areas where possible adverse effects may occur,
the basic questions that should always be asked, is:
How Will Proposed
Project Activities Affect_______________?
If we insert in
this question the components that together
make up the environment, we will get answers (and possible
flags) for those situations where otherwise negative
"inadvertently" may result.
Explanation of Columns
1. In the table on
page 100, ask yourself the basic question for
each of the 18
lines (described below) and assign the following
values in Column
clear and decisive positive impact
limited positive impact
No effect, not
applicable, no impact
but limited negative impact
Very specific or extensive negative
2. A brief
explanation of the factors in columns 1 and 2:
Surface Water --
runoff: peak and yields.
How does the
affect runoff? How does it affect the
discharges)? How does it affect the
amount of water
that will flow
Its quantity, recharge rates, etc.
alter its chemical composition?
Accent on natural vegetation. Will
cover be reduced
(bad) or increased (good)? How will
affected? Will there be additional (or
on trees, bushes, grass, etc.?
Soils -- Will
the project increase or drain soil fertility?
surfaces are affected by the project, is "optimal"
affected favorably or adversely? Will
more or less
Other -- Basic
questions dealing with improvement or deterioration
of factors such
as wildlife, fisheries, natural features.
Also does the
project follow some existing overall
Food -- Will
people have more food and/or a more complete
-- A very important point and one that is
overlooked: Will the project create
Will the project increase (or create) fast
How will it affect existing water courses?
density -- How much will population density increase
as a result of
the activities? What contamination
be altered? How?
Will more Health Care
Other -- Toxic
chemical, exposure to animal borne diseases,
Agricultural productivity -- Per capita food
(staples or cash
Volume of good
or services -- Will the project provide more
firewood, water, etc.) or less?
-- (Water, pasture, trees, etc.) Will
people to use more or less water, pastures,
Will it eliminate any of these resources now
Will it restrict
access to these resources?
equitability -- How are benefits distributed?
will profit from
these activities? Special segments of
How "fairly" will the benefits be
services, administration -- Will the project
work, "coverage" of government services?
additional load on the administration:
training -- How will it affect existing education/training
Strain or support?
Or will it
What about traditional learning (bush
Development -- Will it encourage it, or will it
on-going efforts? If so, is this good
use -- Will it restrict existing use,
grazing patterns? Many projects promote
land use but at
the (social) cost of some one or some group
from using land, vegetation, water the way
they have been
Energy -- How
will the project affect the demand for (or
firewood? Will it increase the
3. Column 4:
This is an arbitrary number based on
4. Column 5:
Choose an adjustment factor between 1.0 and
whether a large number of people and/or large
affected. If a large segment of the
(say: over 1,000 people), use a factor
of 2.5. If
or more are involved, use 2.5 also. If both
large numbers of
people and extensive area are affected,
two: use up to 5.0.
Never use a factor less
5. Compute the
adjusted score by multiplying columns 3, 4 and 5.
Enter result in
column 6. Make sure to carry positive
6. In Column
7: List all impacts that are positive.
7. In Column
8: List all impacts that are negative.
8. Now take another
look at Column 8. Here you'll find a
of the negative
aspects of your proposed activity.
with the largest
values (scores), determine what
measures you can
incorporate into your project, what alternate
be followed to reduce these negative
values, one by
one. This may not always be possible,
to modify your
plans so that the sum of all negative impacts
will be as small
as possible. (Tabulate the new,
scores in Column
redesign your project so that the total of
all "negative impacts" is an small as
possible. This is the
essence of "ecologically sound project design."
references on topics presented in this manual are
listed below. For
convenience, references have been arbitrarily
grouped by categories.
However, in many instances, a particular
reference covers more than a single topic.
Guidelines for Project Evaluation.
1972. United Nations
Organization, Project Formulation and Evaluation
Series No. 2.
Applied Communication in Developing Countries:
The Dag Hammarskjold Foundation.
Introduction to Planning Forestry Development.
Series No. 7.
Project Appraisal and Planning for Developing
Basic Books, Inc.,
Economic Analysis of Projects.
1975. John Hopkins
From the Village to the Medium:
An Experience in Development
Communication Foundation for Asia.
Report on the FAO/SIDA Workshop on Forestry Development
for Countries of the
Near East and South Asia, Dehra Dun, India,
December 1976. 1977.
FAO Forestry Series No.
Development of Arid and Semi-Arid Lands:
Obstacles and Prospects.
UNESCO, MAB Technical Notes No. 6.
Report on the FAO/SIDA Workshop on Forestry Development
for Countries of
Southeast Asia, Manilla, Philippines, 16
FAO Forestry Series No. 39.
Local Responses to Global Problems:
A Key to Meeting Basic Human
Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D.C.
Policy Paper. 1978.
World Bank, New York.
Environmental Design Considerations for Rural Development
U.S. Agency for International Development,
Forestry and the Environment
Ecological Guidelines for Development in Tropical Rain
International Union for Conservation of
Nature and Natural
Mediterranean Forests and Maquis:
Ecology Conservation and Management.
An Introduction to Ecological Forestry.
Tropical Forest Ecosystems:
A State-of-Knowledge Report.
UNESCO, UNEP, and
Man in His Working Environment.
1979. International Labor
Planting for the Future:
Forestry for Human Needs. 1979.
Institute, Washington, D.C.
Tropical Woodlands and Forest Ecosystems.
The Socio-Economic Effects of Forest Management on Lives of
Living in the
Area: The Case of Central American and
Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion
Turrialba, Costa Rica.
Manual of Forestry Inventory with Special References to
FAO Forestry Series No. 3.
Logging and Log Transport in Tropical High Forest.
Paper No. 18.
Tree Planting Practices in the African Savannas.
Paper No. 19.
Forest Assessment, by Dammis Heinsdijk.
Centre for Agricultural
Report on the Second FAO/SIDA Training Course on Forestry
Ibadan, Nigeria, 12
August--September 1974. 1975.
Forestry Series No.
The Methodology of Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources:
Report on a Pilot
Forest Fire Control.
1953, reprinted in 1978. FAO.
An Introduction to Ecological Forestry.
Forestry for Local Community Development.
Paper No. 7.
Introduction to Forest Genetics.
1976. Jonathan W.
Forest Resource Economics.
1972. The Ronald Press, New
A Legal and Institutional Framework for Natural Resource
by G. J. Cano.
FAO Legislative Study No. 9.
Guide to Practical Project Appraisal:
Social Benefit-Cost Analysis
United Nations Project Formulation
Series No. 3.
Economic Analysis of Forestry Projects.
FAO Forestry Paper
Economic Analysis of Forestry Projects:
Forestry Paper No.
17, Suppl. 1.
Economic Analysis of Forestry Projects:
Forestry Paper No. 17, Suppl. 2.
Multiple Use Forestry
Ecological Guidelines for the Use of Natural Resources in
Middle East and
Southwest Asia. 1975.
International Union for
Nature and Natural Resources.
The Use of Ecological Guidelines for Development in the
International Union for Conservation of
Nature and Natural
The Use of Ecological Guidelines for Development in Tropical
Forest Areas of
Southeast Asia. 1975.
International Union for
Nature and Natural Resources.
Ecological Guidelines for Tropical Coastal Development.
for Conservation for Nature and Natural
Management of Natural Resources in Africa:
UNESCO, MAB Technical Note
Ecological Guidelines for Balanced Land Use, Conservation
Development in High
International Union for
Nature and Natural Resources.
Research on Multiple Use of Forest Resources.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest
Economic Analysis of Forestry Projects.
Hans M. Gregersen
and Arnoldo H.
Contreras. FAO Forestry Paper 17.
Economic Analysis of Forestry Projects.
Forestry Paper 17.
Harvesting Wood Products
Guide for Planning Pulp and Paper Enterprises.
and Forest Products
Series No. 18.
The Transfer of Technology to Developing Countries:
The Pulp and
United Nations Institute for Training and
Underexploited Tropical Plants with Promising Economic
National Academy of Sciences, Washington,
Harvesting Man-Made Forests in Developing Countries.
Forestry Series No.
The Marketing of Tropical Wood.
Wood Species from South American
FAO Forestry Paper No. 5.
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Peter F. Ffolliott is Professor, School of Renewable Natural
University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.
research interests relate to natural
inventory and evaluation systems to analyze timber,
and wildlife values. Previous work
was with the
Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment
Forest Service, where he was employed as a
Forester. He earned B.S. and M.F.
the University of Minnesota, and a Ph.D. in
Management from the University of Arizona.
John L. Thames is Professor, School of Renewable Natural
University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.
his teaching and
research activities focus on watershed
development, and soil and water conservation.
assignments as a Research Forester with
the US Army
Corps of Engineers and as a Forest Hydrologist
Southern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest
He earned a B.S. degree in Forestry from
of Florida, a
M.S. degree in Plant Physiology from
of Mississippi, and a Ph.D. in Watershed
the University of Arizona.